An Overview of the Bristol Stool Chart (2023)

The Bristol Stool Chart is a tool used to assess human stool (poop) based on its shape and how formed or loose it is.

You may also hear the tool referred to as the:

  • Bristol Stool Scale
  • Bristol Stool Form Scale
  • Meyers Scale

Stools are assigned a number from 1 to 7, from hardest to loosest.

The scale was created in 1997 by a team of healthcare providers at the British Royal Infirmary in Bristol, England.

It has since become a useful tool to help diagnose gastrointestinal (GI) issues such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

This article will discuss:

  • How the scale classifies stools
  • How it is used by healthcare providers
  • How and why it is used in research

An Overview of the Bristol Stool Chart (1)

Bristol Stool Scale

Your healthcare provider will likely ask you to look at the chart and point to the number that most closely matches the look and form of your bowel movements:

  • Type 1: Separate hard lumps (hard to pass)
  • Type 2: Lumpy, sausage-shaped
  • Type 3: Sausage-shaped with cracks on the surface
  • Type 4: Sausage-shaped or snake-like; smooth and soft
  • Type 5: Soft blobs with clear-cut edges (easy to pass)
  • Type 6: Fluffy pieces with ragged edges; mushy
  • Type 7: Entirely liquid, watery, no solid pieces

Types 3 and 4 describe stool that is well-formed and easy to pass. These are thought of as healthy and the most ideal.

Types 1 and 2 describe stool that is hard to pass and may point to constipation. Bloating and stomach pains may go along with these types.

You may have trouble passing your stool fully. This can cause you to strain when trying to have a bowel movement and lead to hemorrhoids.

Types 5 and 6 are loose stools that can indicate either a lack of fiber in the diet or mild diarrhea.

Type 7 describes very loose stools or fully liquid diarrhea. You may feel an urgent need to have a bowel movement and may not be able to hold it with this type.

You may also become dehydrated or malnourished if the diarrhea persists.

Recap

Your stool is classified based on a 7-point scale that describes its shape and consistency. This can point to GI issues such as constipation and diarrhea.

Poop Colors, Shapes, Sizes, and Consistency: Meaning

(Video) Bristol Stool Chart explained for people with Learning Disability

How the Bristol Stool Chart Is Used

Your healthcare provider may use the Bristol Stool Chart if you have unusual bowel symptoms or notice a change in your bowel habits or the way your stools look.

These include issues such as:

  • Diarrhea
  • Constipation
  • Switching between diarrhea and constipation
  • Abdominal cramps
  • Bloating and gas
  • Nausea or fullness
  • Steatorrhea ("greasy" floating stool)
  • Other symptoms that point to malabsorption, or an inability to digest and absorb nutrients

Your healthcare provider may ask you to look at your stool and compare it to the Bristol Stool Chart. You can then talk about any changes to your bowel habits and the new score at your next visit.

During your visit, your healthcare provider may ask you how often you tend to have a bowel movement and whether you have been having them more or less often than usual.

They may also ask you other questions about your stool such as:

  • How much you tend to pass with each bowel movement
  • How your stools tend to smell and what color they most often are
  • Whether you notice blood or mucus in your stool
  • Whether your stools stick to the toilet bowl and how easy it is to flush away all stool remnants

Your healthcare provider may also look at a sample of your stool and order other tests as needed. For example, they may do a stool culture to find out what kind of bacteria, if any, are present in stool.

They may also use the Rome Criteria to see if your symptoms match those of a functional gastrointestinal disorder such as IBS.

Bowel movements are considered regular in most cases if they occur as often as one to three times a day, or as little as three times a week. But what is considered a "normal" bowel movement varies with each person and there are many factors that influence bowel habits.

A person's bowel habits are influenced by many factors and can change day to day.

For instance, your bowel habits may shift due to:

  • Diet
  • Stress
  • Travel
  • Dehydration
  • Medicines
  • Changes that occur as you age
  • How active you are or how much you exercise
  • Illness such as the stomach flu
  • Changes in your hormone levels, such as those that occur when you are pregnant or menstruate
  • More serious health issues such as inflammatory bowel disease or colon cancer

Recap

Your healthcare provider uses this tool as part of a more thorough assessment of your bowel patterns and habits. This can help pinpoint what may be causing GI issues or making them worse. The results may also point to the need for more tests to determine the root cause of these problems.

Bristol Stool Chart in Research

The Bristol Stool Chart is often used in research as a way to measure how quickly food passes through the digestive tract, and to study problems with GI function.

Researchers have also used the chart to assess how well various treatments work for people with certain GI issues.

And the scale has been used in studies looking at alternative treatments such as acupuncture.

A modified version of the chart can also be used for children. It includes drawings that children can use to describe their stools when being assessed for bowel issues such as constipation and soiling.

Summary

The Bristol Stool Chart is a tool used by your healthcare provider to assess your stool. The 7-point scale helps describe your stool shape and consistency.

Based on the results, your provider can assess your bowel patterns and habits and order more tests as needed to figure out what may be causing your GI issues.

(Video) What is the Bristol Stool Chart?

The scale is also used as a research tool to explore GI disorders and how well various treatments work for these issues.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • Should I be concerned about floating stool?

    On its own, floating stool isn't always something to be concerned about. It could just mean your body has excessive gas. This can happen from switching up your diet. However, floating stool has also been linked to malabsorption (not absorbing enough nutrients from food), an infection in the gastrointestinal system, pancreatitis, and mixed irritable bowel syndrome. It may be worth contacting your healthcare provider if you experience unexpected or severe weight loss.

  • How does diverticulitis affect stool?

    Diverticulitis affects stool by making the stool hard and difficult to pass, which may result in constipation. It commonly causes bleeding from the rectum, but this bleeding is often painless. After a bowel movement the stool can show signs of bright red or maroon-colored blood.

  • How does colon cancer affect stool?

    Colon cancer affects stool by changing its consistency, shape, and color. These changes are often one of the first signs of colon cancer. Stool may appear very thin and cause pain, cramping, and bleeding. A change in bowel movements, in which you need to go more often or less frequently, can also happen.

    Learn More:Colon Cancer and Poop: Signs to Watch Out For

  • What causes type 6 on the Bristol stool scale?

    Type six on the Bristol stool scale can be caused by mild diarrhea and a lack of fiber. Usually mild diarrhea will clear up on its own, but if it doesn't appear to get better after a few days, a healthcare provider can help treat the issue.

    (Video) AN OVERVIEW OF THE BRISTOL STOOL CHART

9 Sources

Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.

  1. Blake MR, Raker JM, Whelan K. Validity and reliability of the Bristol Stool Form Scale in healthy adults and patients with diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2016;44(7):693-703. doi:10.1111/apt.13746

  2. Palsson OS, Whitehead W, Törnblom H, Sperber AD, Simren M. Prevalence of Rome IV functional bowel disorders among adults in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom.Gastroenterology. 2020;158(5):1262-1273.e3. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2019.12.021

  3. Bouchoucha M, Deutsch D, Uong P, Mary F, Sabate JM, Benamouzig R. Characteristics of patients with overlap functional gastrointestinal disorders.J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2021;36(8):2171-2179. doi:10.1111/jgh.15438

  4. Dupont G, Wahl L, Alcala Dominguez T, et al. Anatomy, physiology, and updates on the clinical management of constipation.Clin Anat. 2020;33(8):1181-1186. doi:10.1002/ca.23561

  5. Wang L, Xu M, Zheng Q, Zhang W, Li Y. The effectiveness of acupuncture in management of functional constipation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2020;6137450. doi:10.1155/2020/6137450

  6. Gulati R, Komuravelly A, Leb S, et al. Usefulness of assessment of stool form by the modified Bristol Stool Form Scale in primary care pediatrics.Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr. 2018;21(2):93-100. doi:10.5223/pghn.2018.21.2.93

  7. Penn Medicine. The Scoop on Poop: What Does Your Poop Say About Your Health?

  8. Bouchoucha M, Devroede G, Benamouzig R.Are floating stools associated with specific functional bowel disorders?Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015;27(8):968-973. doi:10.1097/MEG.0000000000000380

  9. Cedars Sinai. Diverticular Disease.

    (Video) Using the bristol stool chart

An Overview of the Bristol Stool Chart (2)

By Abby Norman
Abby Norman is a freelance science writer and medical editor. She is also the author of "Ask Me About My Uterus: A Quest to Make Doctors Believe in Women's Pain."

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FAQs

What is the importance of the Bristol Stool Chart in Recognising bowel dysfunction? ›

The Bristol Stool Chart is widely used as a research tool to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments for various diseases of the bowel. The chart is used to describe the shapes and types of stools. It is also used as a tool to diagnose constipation, diarrhoea and irritable bowel syndrome.

Is Type 5 on the Bristol Stool Chart normal? ›

Based on these illustrations: types 1 and 2 indicate constipation and types 6 and 7 indicate diarrhea. Therefore, normal stool consistency can range from type 3 to 5, with type 4 being the ideal bowel movement. Here are some things to consider if you're struggling with getting the right consistency: Eat more fiber.

Why do I have Type 6 poop? ›

Types 6 and 7

These types of stools may suggest a person is experiencing diarrhea, as the stools are loose. They may also be lighter in color. This is due to passing the stool through the digestive system too quickly and the bowel is unable to absorb water.

Should my poop float or sink? ›

Healthy Poop Should Sink in the Toilet

Floating stools are often an indication of high fat content, which can be a sign of malabsorption, a condition in which you can't absorb enough fat and other nutrients from the food you're ingesting, reports Mount Sinai.

Why is my poop sticky like peanut butter? ›

Sticky poop can be a symptom of a temporary or chronic digestive disorder, or the result of a diet that contains too much fat. Sticky poop can appear greasy and pale or dark and tarry. If you also have other symptoms, such as gas or abdominal cramps, talk to your doctor to determine the cause.

What does it mean when your bowel movements are white? ›

White stool isn't normal and should be evaluated promptly by a doctor. White or clay-like stool is caused by a lack of bile, which may indicate a serious underlying problem. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder.

How do you empty your bowels every morning one minute routine? ›

Drinking plenty of water and staying hydrated is a great way to regulate digestion. People who support a water flush for colon cleansing recommend drinking six to eight glasses of lukewarm water per day. Also try eating plenty of foods high in fiber & water content.

What does your poop look like with IBS? ›

If you have IBS with diarrhea, you will have frequent, loose, watery stools. You may have an urgent need to have a bowel movement, which may be hard to control. If you have IBS with constipation, you will have a hard time passing stool, as well as fewer bowel movements.

What does stress poop look like? ›

“Stress and anxiety increase hormones, such as cortisol, adrenaline, and serotonin,” Eid says. The gut responds to these hormones by producing physical symptoms, like watery stools, nausea, or constipation. Serotonin is especially important when we're talking about anxiety poop.

Should poop be hard or soft? ›

Consistency (degree of firmness)

Stools should be soft and pass easily. Hard, dry stools might be a sign of constipation. You should notify your healthcare provider if constipation lasts longer than two weeks.

Why is my poop fluffy with ragged edges? ›

According to the Bristol Stool Chart, fuzzy, jagged pieces may indicate inflammation of the bowel or an inflammatory bowel disease like ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. It can also indicate a major change in your diet. Check in with your doc to make sure there's no reason to be concerned.

Why are there black balls in my poop? ›

Black poops are typically cause for alarm. A black poop usually means there's an excessive amount of dried blood in your intestines. These are often caused by hemorrhoids but can also indicate much more serious conditions such as IBD.

What happens if your poop is too big to come out? ›

A fecal impaction is a large, hard mass of stool that gets stuck so badly in your colon or rectum that you can't push it out. This problem can be very severe. It can cause grave illness or even death if it's not treated. It's more common among older adults who have bowel problems.

What should I do if my poop is mushy? ›

How to treat loose stools
  1. taking anti-diarrheal medications.
  2. consuming more fiber.
  3. staying hydrated.
  4. adding honey to your diet.
  5. avoiding food and drinks that are triggers.

Why does my poop fall apart in the toilet? ›

Mushy and watery/liquid: Mushy stool is usually made up of very soft pieces that fall apart when they hit the water. This may be due to poor lifestyle/diet change, higher stress than what the body is used to or an intestinal disorder. It can also happen when there is a change in exercise routine.

Why does my poop stick to the bottom of the toilet? ›

Share on Pinterest Sticky poop may be caused by improper digestion, or by certain medicines. According to Dr. Octavio A. Vega, a physician at Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, the ideal stool “…is like a banana.” Stools should have a soft consistency, round shape, smooth surface, and tapered ends.

Why is my poop floating and smelly? ›

Increased gas in the stool allows it to float. Floating stools may also happen if you have a gastrointestinal infection. Floating, greasy stools that are foul smelling may be due to severe malabsorption, particularly if you are losing weight. Malabsorption means your body is not properly absorbing nutrients.

Do bananas harden stool? ›

“Bananas, when fully ripe, contain soluble fiber and thus can help treat constipation,” Lee says. “However, unripe, or green, bananas have high levels of resistant starch, which can be very binding and cause constipation.” Because of this, unripe bananas can be used to treat diarrhea, she notes.

Why can't I push my stool out? ›

Lifestyle habits can contribute to poop getting stuck halfway out. Some dietary and daily habits can cause constipation, such as a sedentary lifestyle and eating a low fiber diet. Not drinking enough water also causes stools to become dry and hard, potentially causing poop to get stuck halfway out.

Why does my poop smell like rotten eggs? ›

When you eat foods that are high in sulfur—such as meats, dairy, garlic, and cruciferous veggies (think: broccoli, cabbage, kale)—your gut works overtime to digest them and produces a larger amount of the gasses that make your poop smell.

Is peanut butter colored poop normal? ›

Stools should be brown, have a peanut-butter texture, and look like a sausage. If your stool has an abnormal color or consistency, it may be due to something you ate or an underlying medical condition in need of investigation by a healthcare provider.

What does light tan poop mean? ›

Stools that are pale, clay, or putty-colored may be due to problems in the biliary system. The biliary system is the drainage system of the gallbladder, liver, and pancreas. Food passes from the stomach into the small intestine. In the small intestine all nutrient absorption occurs.

What simple trick empties your bowels? ›

Olive oil – consuming a teaspoon of olive oil in the morning on an empty stomach can encourage stool to flow through the gut. The oil acts as a lubricant in the digestive system, meaning it's easier for solids to slide through. It also softens up the stool, making it easier to empty your bowels completely.

What food will completely empty my bowels? ›

5 colon-cleansing foods
  • Broccoli. There are so many different ways to add broccoli to your diet. ...
  • Dark, leafy greens. Eating dark, leafy greens like spinach, kale, and chard is a great way to cleanse your colon. ...
  • Milk. You can use milk for more than just your morning cereal. ...
  • Raspberries. ...
  • Oatmeal.

Are your bowels ever completely empty? ›

Your Colon Is Never Empty

Many people believe they have emptied out their colons after multiple episodes of diarrhea or that they can keep their colons empty by avoiding food. However, since stool is made up in large part of bacteria, fecal matter is continuously being formed.

How come I poop immediately after eating? ›

Passing stool immediately after a meal is usually the result of the gastrocolic reflex, which is a normal bodily reaction to food entering the stomach. Almost everyone will experience the effects of the gastrocolic reflex from time to time. However, its intensity can vary from person to person.

Where is IBS back pain felt? ›

People with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) sometimes report symptoms that appear to be unrelated to IBS. One frequently mentioned and seemingly unrelated symptom is lower back pain, especially during the night.

What is a healthy poop color? ›

All shades of brown and even green are considered normal. Only rarely does stool color indicate a potentially serious intestinal condition. Stool color is generally influenced by what you eat as well as by the amount of bile — a yellow-green fluid that digests fats — in your stool.

What does old blood in poop look like? ›

When you have blood in your stool it can look a few different ways. You may have bright red streaks of blood on your poop or you could see blood mixed in with it. Stool could also look very dark, almost black, and tarry. Sometimes, you can have blood in your stool that's not visible.

Does drinking a lot of water make you poop watery? ›

When you have too much water in the body, the kidneys can't remove the excess liquid. It starts collecting in the body, leading to nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.

What does high fiber poop look like? ›

"A diet rich in fiber tends to have more formed, brown stools, most commonly seen in Bristol Stool Chart Type 4," says Dr. Lee. If your diet's low in fiber and water, you might find your poops more consistently look like Types 1 through 3, she adds.

How long can you go without pooping before seeing a doctor? ›

A person should talk with their doctor if they go more than a week without pooping, if the constipation lasts for more than 3 consecutive months, or if it does not respond to at-home treatment. Children and pregnant women should receive medical care if they experience bowel symptoms for more than a few weeks.

How much should one sit while pooping? ›

The average person poos about 30 millilitres of stool for every five kilograms of body weight a day. So for the average 70 kilogram person, that works out to about a half a kilogram (one pound) of poop per day.

Do bowels change as you get older? ›

As stated at the outset, as we age things change, and this includes bowel habits. The most common thing to happen with age is that constipation is more frequent.

What are some things that a foul smelling stool can be caused from? ›

Causes of foul-smelling stool
  • Viral or bacterial illnesses. Viral or bacterial infections and parasitic infections can affect digestion and cause foul-smelling stool or diarrhea. ...
  • Antibiotics and infection. ...
  • Malabsorption syndromes. ...
  • Short bowel syndrome.

Why does it burn when I poop No spicy food? ›

Burning poop: possible causes

Burning poop can happen when the mucosal lining of your rectum is inflamed. Issues like diarrhea, constipation, bowel disease, and even sexually-transmitted infections like chlamydia can all cause inflammation that makes it painful to poop.

Are long poops healthy? ›

The healthiest shape for poop is a long cylinder. When poop takes on other shapes, it may indicate something could be going on with your digestive system.

How many times a day should you poop? ›

What's considered “normal” when it comes to how often you should poop varies a lot. The average person poops between three times a day and three times a week.

What are bowel movements like with diverticulitis? ›

Texture: Diverticulitis can cause diarrhea or constipation, causing the stool to be especially loose or firm. Frequency: The frequency can also be affected if you experience diarrhea or constipation. Effort: Stools may become more strained or painful.

Should my poop float or sink? ›

Healthy Poop Should Sink in the Toilet

Floating stools are often an indication of high fat content, which can be a sign of malabsorption, a condition in which you can't absorb enough fat and other nutrients from the food you're ingesting, reports Mount Sinai.

Should you push when you poop? ›

Consistently straining when pooping can cause a number of health complications, including: Hemorrhoids. These swollen veins in your lower rectum and anus can cause pain, burning, and itching.

Why does my poop smear when I wipe? ›

Sticky poop can be a symptom of a temporary or chronic digestive disorder, or the result of a diet that contains too much fat. Sticky poop can appear greasy and pale or dark and tarry. If you also have other symptoms, such as gas or abdominal cramps, talk to your doctor to determine the cause.

Why is my poop long like a snake? ›

While narrow or pencil-thin stool is not always a sign of constipation, it may be if your poop doesn't normally look that way. Constipation is usually caused by a lack of fiber in your diet or not enough exercise. Other causes include pregnancy, travel, use of some medications, and changes in your hormone levels.

Why is my poop mushy everyday? ›

Mushy Stool - Type 6

This form of stool has passed through the colon quickly, due to stress or a dramatic change in diet or activity level. When the body is under stress or not used to a healthy diet and lifestyle, it can push the poop through the intestines faster than intended.

How do you empty your bowels every morning one minute routine? ›

Drinking plenty of water and staying hydrated is a great way to regulate digestion. People who support a water flush for colon cleansing recommend drinking six to eight glasses of lukewarm water per day. Also try eating plenty of foods high in fiber & water content.

What does your poop look like with IBS? ›

If you have IBS with diarrhea, you will have frequent, loose, watery stools. You may have an urgent need to have a bowel movement, which may be hard to control. If you have IBS with constipation, you will have a hard time passing stool, as well as fewer bowel movements.

What size should your bowel movements be? ›

Poop size. A normal stool size is at least a couple inches in length, and ideally between four and eight inches. Tiny poops aren't good. You shouldn't be pooping out pellets – not unless you're a bunny, deer or other wild animal.

How many bowel movements a day is normal? ›

There is no “normal” number of bowel movements. Many healthcare providers agree that healthy bowel movement frequency can range from three times a day to three times a week.

What simple trick empties your bowels? ›

Olive oil – consuming a teaspoon of olive oil in the morning on an empty stomach can encourage stool to flow through the gut. The oil acts as a lubricant in the digestive system, meaning it's easier for solids to slide through. It also softens up the stool, making it easier to empty your bowels completely.

What food will completely empty my bowels? ›

5 colon-cleansing foods
  • Broccoli. There are so many different ways to add broccoli to your diet. ...
  • Dark, leafy greens. Eating dark, leafy greens like spinach, kale, and chard is a great way to cleanse your colon. ...
  • Milk. You can use milk for more than just your morning cereal. ...
  • Raspberries. ...
  • Oatmeal.

Are your bowels ever completely empty? ›

Your Colon Is Never Empty

Many people believe they have emptied out their colons after multiple episodes of diarrhea or that they can keep their colons empty by avoiding food. However, since stool is made up in large part of bacteria, fecal matter is continuously being formed.

What does skinny poop mean? ›

Narrow stools that occur infrequently probably are harmless. In some cases, however , narrow stools — especially if pencil thin — may be a sign of narrowing or obstruction of the colon due to colon cancer.

Why does my poop fall apart in the toilet? ›

Mushy and watery/liquid: Mushy stool is usually made up of very soft pieces that fall apart when they hit the water. This may be due to poor lifestyle/diet change, higher stress than what the body is used to or an intestinal disorder. It can also happen when there is a change in exercise routine.

How come I poop immediately after eating? ›

Passing stool immediately after a meal is usually the result of the gastrocolic reflex, which is a normal bodily reaction to food entering the stomach. Almost everyone will experience the effects of the gastrocolic reflex from time to time. However, its intensity can vary from person to person.

What happens if your poop is too big to come out? ›

A fecal impaction is a large, hard mass of stool that gets stuck so badly in your colon or rectum that you can't push it out. This problem can be very severe. It can cause grave illness or even death if it's not treated. It's more common among older adults who have bowel problems.

Why is my poop long like a snake? ›

While narrow or pencil-thin stool is not always a sign of constipation, it may be if your poop doesn't normally look that way. Constipation is usually caused by a lack of fiber in your diet or not enough exercise. Other causes include pregnancy, travel, use of some medications, and changes in your hormone levels.

What does stress poop look like? ›

“Stress and anxiety increase hormones, such as cortisol, adrenaline, and serotonin,” Eid says. The gut responds to these hormones by producing physical symptoms, like watery stools, nausea, or constipation. Serotonin is especially important when we're talking about anxiety poop.

What is it called when you pee and poop at the same time? ›

A fistula is an abnormal hole in the bowel or the bladder. A recto-urethral fistula is a hole between the urethra (urinary channel) and the rectum. This hole leads to leakage of urine into the rectum and feces travelling into the bladder.

Is it normal to pee and poop at the same time? ›

The pelvic floor muscles relax when we defecate. However, they will not necessarily have to fully relax when we urinate. But when the pelvic floor musculature does relax, in addition to allowing stool to pass, it decreases the tension in our urinary sphincters, allowing urine to flow.

Why am I pooping so much all of a sudden in the morning? ›

If you often experience morning diarrhea, it's important to discover its cause. It could be a sign of a chronic health problem, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Or you may have a bacterial infection or simply a dietary pattern that needs to change.

Videos

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4. Revised explanation on the 7 parts of the Bristol Stool Chart and their influence on the intestines
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