Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary - Shadeyman - PDFCOFFEE.COM (2023)

Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary


The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, United Kingdom CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS

The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU, UK 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011–4211, USA 477 Williamstown Road, Port Melbourne, VIC 3207, Australia Ruiz de Alarcón 13, 28014 Madrid, Spain Dock House, The Waterfront, Cape Town 8001, South Africa © Cambridge University Press 2003 This book is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. Defined words which we have reason to believe constitute trademarks have been labelled as such. However, neither the presence nor absence of such labels should be regarded as affecting the legal status of any trademarks. First published 1995 as Cambridge International Dictionary of English This edition first published 2003 as Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary Reprinted 2003 Printed and bound in Great Britain by Clays Ltd, St Ives plc Typeface Nimrod, Frutiger® A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication data applied for

ISBN 0 521 82422 2 hardback ISBN 0 521 53105 5 paperback ISBN 0 521 82423 0 hardback + CD-ROM ISBN 0 521 53106 3 paperback + CD-ROM ISBN 3 12 5179947 Klett paperback edition ISBN 3 12 5179939 Klett hardback + CD-ROM edition

Contents Grammar codes and abbreviations

inside front cover



How to use the dictionary


Numbers that are used like words


The Dictionary


Colour Pictures

Centre 1–16

Study Sections Centre 18

Phrasal verbs


Centre 19


Centre 28

Periods of time

Centre 20

Modal verbs

Centre 29


Centre 21


Centre 30


Centre 22


Centre 31

Sounds and smells

Centre 23

Letter Writing

Centre 32–33

Computers, text messages, email

Centre 24–25

Regular inflections

Centre 34–35


Centre 36–37

Relative clauses

Centre 26

Varieties of English

Centre 38

Work and jobs

Centre 27

Idiom Finder


Word Families


Geographical Names


Common First Names


Prefixes and Suffixes


Irregular verbs


Regular verb tenses




Units of measurement




Pronunciation symbols

inside back cover


Introduction It seems a very long time since I first heard about the death of printed dictionaries. I was assured, very confidently, in the early 1980s, that everything would be electronic by the new century. Nobody would bother to flick through 1600 pages when they could just hit the ‘enter’ key. Well we are now well into the new century and people seem just as keen to buy the printed book. You may well have bought a version of this Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary with a CD-ROM attached, but the medium which you are currently using to read these words is the same medium that was used in the first Cambridge University Press book in 1584 – paper and ink. So why has the printed dictionary survived so well? Maybe people see their dictionary as a friend. Perhaps a bond is created in all the hours that a learner spends together with a dictionary. Perhaps some of the character of the book rubs off on the reader. And what kind of character would they find in the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary? Friendly, that would be one part of the character. We have made the page as friendly and easy to read as possible, with coloured printing to make the words easier to find, and with a special clear way of showing idioms and phrasal verbs. We have also included an ‘Idiom Finder’ at the back of the dictionary so that you can find idioms even if you don’t know which part of the dictionary to look in. ‘Helpful’ would also be part of the character. You will find ‘Common Learner Error’ notes

spread throughout the dictionary, to make sure that you don’t make the mistakes that many learners make. The notes are based on the Cambridge Learner Corpus, which is a 15-million word collection of learners’ English based on what students have written in the Cambridge exams from Cambridge ESOL. This corpus means that we can really see what learners’ English is like – and find ways to make it even better. ‘Well-informed’ is certainly part of the character. You will find thousands of up-todate words as you look through the dictionary, including many that have only just come into the language. We can make sure that these important new words are included because we have the huge Cambridge International Corpus to help us. This has over 500 million words from British English and American English, from spoken English and written English, and from many specialized types of English, such as Law and Computers and Science. If you find that the character of the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary is one that appeals to you, then I should point out that you are actually making friends with a large group of talented people who created this book and its predecessor, the Cambridge International Dictionary of English. All of them have an excellent ‘feel for language’ and a clear understanding of what learners need to know. The corpus resources can give us information, but only good lexicographers can put it into a book that you can make friends with. I hope you enjoy getting to know them.

Patrick Gillard January 2003






LETTER (plural A’s), a (plural a’s) /e/ noun [C] the 1st letter of the English alphabet 쐌 from A to B from one place to another: Using this software a driver can now work out the quickest route from A to B. 쐌 from A to Z including everything: This book tells the story of her life from A to Z. A MUSIC /e/ noun [C or U] plural A’s or As a note in Western music: This concerto is in the key of A major. A MARK /e/ noun [C or U] plural A’s or As a mark in an exam or for a piece of work that shows that your work is considered excellent: Sophie got (an) A for English. 앩 She got straight As (= All her marks were As) in her end-of-year exams. 앩 US Jim is a straight A student (= All his marks are A). A ELECTRICITY ABBREVIATION FOR amp ELECTRICITY a NOT PARTICULAR WEAK /ə/, STRONG /e/ determiner (ALSO an) 1 used before a noun to refer to a single thing or person that has not been mentioned before, especially when you are not referring to a particular thing or person, or you do not expect listeners or readers to know which particular thing or person you are referring to: I’ve bought a car. 앩 She’s got a boyfriend. 앩 There was a sudden loud noise. 앩 What a shame that you couldn’t go to the party. 앩 I heard a child crying. 앩 Is he a friend of yours (= one of your friends)? 2 used to state what type of thing or person something or someone is: She wants to be a doctor when she grows up. 앩 This is a very mild cheese. 앩 Experts think the painting may be a Picasso (= by Picasso). 3 used to mean any or every thing or person of the type you are referring to: Can you ride a bike? 앩 A cheetah can run faster than a lion. 앩 A teacher needs to have a lot of patience. 4 used before some uncountable nouns when you want to limit their meaning in some way, such as when describing them more completely or referring to one example of them: I only have a limited knowledge of Spanish. 앩 He has a great love of music. 앩 There was a fierceness in her voice. 5 used before some nouns of action when referring to one example of the action: Take a look at this, Jez. 앩 I’m just going to have a wash. 앩 There was a knocking at the door. 6 used when referring to a unit or container of something, especially something you eat or drink: I’d love a coffee. 앩 All I had for lunch was a yogurt. 7 used before the first but not the second of two nouns that are referred to as one unit: a cup and saucer 앩 a knife and fork 8 used in front of a person’s name when referring to someone who you do not know: There’s a Ms Evans to see you. 9 used in front of a person’s family name when they are a member of that family: Is that a Wilson over there? 10 used before the name of a day or month to refer to one example of it: My birthday is on a Friday this year. 앩 It’s been a very wet June. 11 used before some words that express a number or amount: a few days 앩 a bit of wool 앩 a lot of money


a or an? a is used before consonants or before vowels which are pronounced as consonants.

a dog a university an is used before vowels.

an old building a old building

period: Take one tablet three times a day. 앩 I swim once a week. 4 used when saying how much someone earns or how much something costs in a certain period: She earns $100 000 a year. 앩 My plumber charges £20 an hour. 앩 I pay £5 a week for my parking permit. US /fɔr/ noun [U], adj paper that is a standard A4 /efɔ/  European size of 21 centimetres by 29.7 centimetres: a sheet of A4 앩 A4 paper AA DEGREE /ee/ noun [C] ABBREVIATION FOR Associate in Arts: a degree given by an American college to someone after they have completed a two-year course, or a person who has this degree AA ALCOHOL /ee/ group noun [S] ABBREVIATION FOR Alcoholics Anonymous: an organization for people who drink too much alcohol and want to cure themselves of this habit: an AA meeting the AA CARS group noun [S] ABBREVIATION FOR the Automobile Association: a British organization which gives help and information to drivers who are members of it AAA /e.ee/ group noun [S] ABBREVIATION FOR American Automobile Association: an American organization which gives help and information to drivers who are members of it aah /ɑ/ exclamation ANOTHER SPELLING OF ah US /ard.vɑrk/ noun [C] an African aardvark /ɑd.vɑk/  mammal with a long nose and large ears which lives underground and eats insects AB /ebi/ noun [C] US FOR BA aback /əbk/ adv be taken aback to be very shocked or surprised: I was rather taken aback by her honesty. abacus /b.ə.kəs/ noun [C] a square or rectangular frame holding an arrangement of small balls on metal rods or wires, which is used for counting, adding and subtracting abandon LEAVE /əbn.dən/ verb [T] to leave a place, thing or person forever: We had to abandon the car. 앩 By the time the rebel troops arrived, the village had already been abandoned. 앩 As a baby he’d been abandoned by his mother. 앩 We were sinking fast, and the captain gave the order to abandon ship. abandoned /əbn.dənd/ adj: An abandoned baby was found in a box on the hospital steps. abandonment /əbn.dən.mənt/ noun [U] The abandonment of the island followed nuclear tests in the area. abandon STOP /əbn.dən/ verb [T] to stop doing an activity before you have finished it: The match was abandoned at half-time because of the poor weather conditions. 앩 They had to abandon their attempt to climb the mountain. 앩 The party has now abandoned its policy of unilateral disarmament. abandonment /əbn.dən. mənt/ noun [U] 쑿 abandon yourself to sth phrasal verb [R] to allow yourself to be controlled completely by a feeling or way of living: He abandoned himself to his emotions. abandon /əbn.dən/ noun LITERARY with (gay/wild) abandon in a completely uncontrolled way: We danced with wild abandon. abase yourself /əbes/ verb [R] FORMAL to make yourself seem to be less important or not to deserve respect abasement /əbe.smənt/ noun [U] The pilgrims knelt in self-abasement. abashed /əbʃt/ adj [after v] embarrassed: He said nothing but looked abashed. abate /əbet/ verb [I] FORMAL to become less strong: The storm/wind/rain has started to abate. 앩 The fighting in the area shows no sign of abating. 7See also unabated. abatement /əbet.mənt/ noun [U] US /twɑr/ noun [C] (MAINabattoir MAINLY UK /b.ə.twɑr/  LY US slaughterhouse) a place where animals are killed for their meat abbess / noun [C] a woman who is in charge of a CONVENT

abbey /b.i/ noun /ə/, STRONG /e/ determiner (ALSO an) 1 one: a hundred 앩 a thousand 앩 a dozen 앩 There were three men and a woman. 2 used between a fraction and a unit of measurement: half a mile 앩 a quarter of a kilo 앩 threequarters of an hour 앩 six-tenths of a second 3 used when saying how often something happens in a certain



[C] a building where monks or nuns live or used to live. Some abbeys are now used as churches: Westminster Abbey abbot /b.ət/ noun [C] a man who is in charge of a MONASTERY

abbreviate /ət/ verb [T usually passive] to make a word or phrase shorter by using only the first letters of






each word: ‘Daniel’ is often abbreviated to ‘Dan’. 앩 ‘Chief Executive Officer’ is abbreviated as ‘CEO’. abbreviated US /t /ə.td/  d/ adj: ‘Di’ is the abbreviated form of ‘Diane’. abbreviation /əbri.vie.ʃən/ noun [C] ‘ITV’ is the abbreviation for ‘Independent Television’. ABC ALPHABET /e.bisi/ noun [S] (US USUALLY ABCs) INFORMAL 1 the alphabet: He’s learning his ABC at school. 2 basic information about a subject: What I need is a book that contains the ABC of carpentry. ABC US TV /e.bisi/ group noun [S] ABBREVIATION FOR American Broadcasting Company: an organization that broadcasts on television in the US the ABC AUSTRALIAN TV group noun [S] ABBREVIATION FOR the Australian Broadcasting Corporation: an organization that broadcasts on radio and television in Australia and is paid for by the government abdicate GIVE UP /b.d.ket/ verb [I or T] If a king or queen abdicates, they make a formal statement that they no longer want to be king or queen: King Edward VIII abdicated (the British throne) in 1936 so that he could marry Mrs Simpson, a divorced woman. abdication /b.dke.ʃən/ noun [C or U] abdicate NOT DO /b.d.ket/ verb FORMAL DISAPPROVING abdicate responsibility to stop controlling or managing something that you are in charge of: She was accused of abdicating all responsibility for the project. abdication /b.dke.ʃən/ noun [U] FORMAL The council denied that their decision represented any abdication of responsibility. abdomen /b.də.mən/ noun [C] SPECIALIZED the lower part of a person’s or animal’s body, which contains the stomach, bowels and other organs, or the end of an inUS /dɑ.mə/ adj: sect’s body abdominal /bdɒm..nəl/  abdominal pains US /dɑ.mə/ plural noun abdominals /bdɒm..nəlz/  (INFORMAL abs) muscles in the abdomen abduct /bd kt/ verb [T] to force someone to go somewhere with you, often using threats or violence: The company director was abducted from his car by terrorists. abduction /bd k.ʃən/ noun [C or U] There has been a series of abductions of young children from schools in the area. 앩 He was charged with abduction. abductor US /bd k.tər/  /t/ noun [C] She was tortured by her abductors. aberrant /əber.ənt/ adj FORMAL different from what is typical or usual, especially in an unacceptable way: aberrant behaviour/sexuality aberration /b.əre.ʃən/ noun [C or U] FORMAL a temporary change from the typical or usual way of behaving: In a moment of aberration, she agreed to go with him. 앩 I’m sorry I’m late – I had a mental aberration and forgot we had a meeting today. abet /əbet/ verb [T] -tt- to help or encourage someone to do something wrong or illegal: His accountant had aided and abetted him in the fraud. abettor /əbet.ər/ US /bet  ./ noun [C] abeyance /əbe.ənts/ noun [U] FORMAL a state of not happening or being used at present: Hostilities between the two groups have been in abeyance since last June. 앩 The project is being held in abeyance until agreement is reached on funding it. US /bhɔr/ verb [T not continuous] -rr- FORMAL abhor /əbɔr/  to hate a way of behaving or thinking, often because you think it is immoral: I abhor all forms of racism. US /bhɔr/ adj FORMAL morally abhorrent /əbɒr.ənt/  very bad: an abhorrent crime 앩 Racism of any kind is US /bhɔr/ abhorrent to me. abhorrence /əbɒr.ənts/  noun [S or U] She looked at him in/with abhorrence. 앩 She has an abhorrence of change. abide /əbad/ verb [I usually + adv or prep] OLD USE to live or stay somewhere: He abided in the wilderness for forty days. 쐌 can’t abide sb/sth If you can’t abide someone or something, you dislike them very much: I can’t abide her. 앩 He couldn’t abide laziness. 쑿 abide by sth phrasal verb to accept or obey an agreement, decision or rule: Competitors must abide by the judge’s decision.

abiding /əba.dŋ/ adj

[before n] describes a feeling or memory that you have for a long time: My abiding memory is of him watering his plants in the garden on sunny afternoons. US ability POWER /əbl..ti/  /ə.ti/ noun [C or U] the physical or mental power or skill needed to do something: There’s no doubting her ability. 앩 [+ to infinitive] She had the ability to explain things clearly and concisely. 앩 She’s a woman of considerable abilities. 앩 I have children in my class of very mixed abilities (= different levels of skill or intelligence). 앩 a mixed ability class 7See also able CAN DO; able SKILFUL. US /ə.t -ability QUALITY /ə.bl..ti/  i/ suffix (ALSO -ibility) used to form nouns from adjectives ending in ‘-able’ or ‘-ible’, to mean the quality of being the stated adjective: suitability 앩 stability abject EXTREME /b.d ekt/ adj FORMAL abject misery/ poverty/terror, etc. when someone is extremely unhappy, poor, frightened, etc: They live in abject poverty. 앩 This policy has turned out to be an abject failure. abject WITHOUT RESPECT /b.d ekt/ adj FORMAL showing no pride or respect for yourself: an abject apology 앩 He is almost abject in his respect for his boss. abjectly /b.d adv US /d υr/ verb [T] VERY FORMAL to state abjure /əbd υər/  publicly that you no longer agree with a belief or way of behaving: He abjured his religion/his life of dissipation. ablaze BURNING /əblez/ adj [after v] 1 burning very strongly: The house was ablaze, and the flames and smoke could be seen for miles around. 2 brightly lit or brightly coloured: The ballroom was ablaze with lights. 앩 The field was ablaze with poppies and wild flowers. ablaze EMOTION /əblez/ adj [after v] full of energy, interest or emotion: Her eyes were ablaze with excitement. able CAN DO /e.bl/ adj be able to do sth to have the necessary physical strength, mental power, skill, time, money or opportunity to do something: Will she be able to cope with the work? 앩 He’s never been able to admit to his mistakes. 앩 I’m sorry that I wasn’t able to phone you yesterday. 앩 It’s so wonderful being able to see the sea from my window. 7See also ability.


be able to be able to is used instead of can when future tenses, perfect tenses, etc. are used.

I can’t find your book. I haven’t been able to find your book.


SKILFUL /e.bl/ adj clever or good at what you do: an able child/student/secretary 앩 This problem is now being looked at by some of the ablest minds/scientists in the country. 7See also ability. ably /e.bli/ adv: He performs his duties very ably (= skilfully). -able CAN BE /ə.bl/ suffix (ALSO -ible) added to verbs to form adjectives which mean able to receive the action of the stated verb: breakable 앩 washable 앩 moveable -able WORTH BEING /ə.bl/ suffix (ALSO -ible) added to verbs to form adjectives which mean worth receiving the action of the stated verb: an admirable person 앩 an acceptable answer US able-bodied /e.blbɒ  /bɑ.did/ adj describes someone who is healthy and has no illness, injury or condition that makes it difficult to do the things that other people do: All able-bodied young men were forced to join the army. the able-bodied plural noun: It is hard for the able-bodied to understand the difficulties that disabled people encounter in their daily lives. ablution /əblu.ʃən/ noun [U] FORMAL the act of washing yourself: Ablution is part of some religious ceremonies. ablutions /əblu.ʃənz/ plural noun HUMOROUS I must just perform my ablutions (= wash myself)! US abnormal /bnɔ.məl/  /nɔr/ adj different from what is usual or average, especially in a way that is bad: abnormal behaviour/weather/conditions 앩 Tests revealed some abnormal skin cells.




abnormality /b.nɔml.ə.ti/  /nɔrml.ə.ti/ noun [C or U] something abnormal, usually in the body: genetic/ congenital abnormalities 앩 An increasing number of tests are available for detecting foetal abnormalities. 앩 The X-rays showed some slight abnormality. abnormally US /bnɔ.məl.i/  /nɔr/ adv: The success rate was abnormally high. US Abo /b.əυ/  /oυ/ noun [C] plural Abos AUS an Aborigine. This word is generally considered offensive. US /bɔrd/ adv, prep used when talking aboard /əbɔd/  about getting onto a ship, aircraft, bus or train: The flight attendant welcomed us aboard. 앩 Welcome aboard flight BA345 to Tokyo. 앩 The train’s about to leave. All aboard! 앩 We spent two months aboard ship (= on the ship). US /boυd/ noun [C usually sing] the place abode /əbəυd/  where someone lives: FORMAL The defendant is of no fixed abode (= has no permanent home). 앩 HUMOROUS Welcome to my humble abode! US /bɑ.lʃ/ verb [T] to end an activity abolish /əbɒl.ʃ/  or custom officially: I think bullfighting should be abolished. 앩 National Service was abolished in Britain in 1962. abolition /b.əlʃ.ən/ noun [U] William Wilberforce campaigned for the abolition of slavery. abolitionist /b.əlʃ.ən.st/ noun [C] a person who supports the abolition of something US /bɑ.m/ adj very bad abominable /əbɒm..nə.bl/  or unpleasant: The prisoners are forced to live in abominable conditions. 앩 The weather’s been abominable all US /bɑ.m/ adv: He week. abominably /əbɒm..nə.bli/  behaved abominably towards her. abominable snowman noun [C] a yeti US abomination /əbɒm.ne.ʃən/  /bɑ.m/ noun [C] FORMAL something that disgusts you: Foxhunting is an abomination. US /bɑ.m/ verb [T not continabominate /əbɒm..net/  uous] FORMAL to hate something very much: He abominates cruelty of all kinds. aboriginal /b.ərd ..nəl/ adj describes a person or living thing that has existed in a country or continent since the earliest time known to people: aboriginal forests 앩 aboriginal inhabitants Aborigine /b.ərd .ən.i/ noun [C] a member of the race of dark-skinned people who were the first people to live Aboriginal /b.ərd ..nəl/ adj: in Australia Aboriginal art/traditions Aboriginal /b.ərd ..nəl/ noun [C] an Aborigine US /bɔrt/ verb [T] to cause something abort STOP /əbɔt/  to stop or fail before it begins or before it is complete: The plan/flight had to be aborted at the last minute. US /bɔr/ noun [C] SLANG a failure: abortion /əbɔ.ʃən/  This project is a complete abortion. US /bɔr.t abortive /əbɔ.tv/  v/ adj FORMAL describes an attempt or plan that you have to give up because it has failed: He made two abortive attempts on the French throne. US /bɔrt/ verb 1 [T] to stop abort END PREGNANCY /əbɔt/  the development of a baby that has not been born, usually by having a medical operation: Do you think it’s wrong to use aborted foetuses for medical research? 2 [I] another word for miscarry, see at miscarriage US /bɔr/ noun [C or U] the intenabortion /əbɔ.ʃən/  tional ending of a pregnancy, usually by a medical operation: She decided to have/get an abortion. 앩 Abortion is restricted in some American states. 7Compare miscarriage; stillbirth. US /bɔr/ noun [C] a person abortionist /əbɔ.ʃən.st/  who performs abortions to end unwanted pregnancies, often illegally and for money abound /əbaυnd/ verb [I] to exist in large numbers: Theories abound about how the earth began. 쑿 abound in/with sth phrasal verb If something abounds in/with other things, it has a lot of them: The coast here abounds with rare plants. about CONNECTED WITH /əbaυt/ prep on the subject of; connected with: What’s that book about? 앩 a film about the Spanish Civil War 앩 We were talking/laughing about Sophie. 앩 He’s always (going) on about what a great job he’s got. 앩 I’m worried about David. 앩 I really don’t know US

what all the fuss is about. 앩 I wish you’d do something about (= take action to solve the problem of) your bedroom – it’s a real mess. 앩 UK INFORMAL Could you make me a coffee too while you’re about it (= while you are making one for yourself)? 앩 What didn’t you like about the play? 앩 There’s something about (= in the character of) her attitude that worries me. 앩 There’s something special about him (= in his character). 앩 "Is that your car?" "Yes, what about it (= why are you asking me)?" ✻ This is sometimes said in an angry or threatening way. 쐌 How/What about? used when suggesting or offering something to someone: How about a trip to the zoo this afternoon? 앩 "Coffee, Sarah?" "No, thanks." "What about you, Kate?" about APPROXIMATELY /əbaυt/ adv a little more or less than the stated number or amount; approximately: about six feet tall 앩 about two months ago 앩 "What time are you leaving work today?" "About five." 앩 We’re about (= almost) ready to leave. 앩 Well, I think that’s about it for now (= we have almost finished what we are doing for the present). about IN THIS PLACE UK /əbaυt/ adv, prep, adj [after v] (US around) positioned or moving in or near a place, often without a clear direction, purpose or order: She always leaves her clothes lying about on the floor. 앩 They heard someone moving about outside. 앩 I’ve been running about all morning trying to find you. 앩 UK FORMAL Do you have such a thing as a pen about you/your person (= Have you got a pen)? 앩 Is John about (= somewhere near)? 앩 There’s a lot of flu about (= many people have it) at the moment. about INTENDING /əbaυt/ adj be about to do sth to be going to do something very soon: I was about to leave when Mark arrived. 앩 She looked as if she was about to cry. US about-turn UK /əbaυttn/  /tn/ noun [C] (US about-face) 1 a change of direction: I’d only gone a little way down the street when I remembered I hadn’t locked the door, so I made/did a quick about-turn and ran back to the house. 2 a complete change of opinion or behaviour: This is the Government’s second about-turn on the issue. above HIGHER POSITION /əb v/ adv, prep in or to a higher position than something else: There’s a mirror above the washbasin. 앩 He waved the letter excitedly above his head. 앩 She’s rented a room above a shop. 앩 Her name comes above mine on the list. 앩 The helicopter was hovering above the building. above MORE /əb v/ adv, prep 1 more than an amount or level: It says on the box it’s for children aged three and above. 앩 Rates of pay are above average. 앩 Temperatures rarely rise above zero in winter. 앩 She values her job above her family. 앩 They value their freedom above (and beyond) all else. 2 above all most importantly: Above all, I’d like to thank my family. above RANK /əb v/ adv, prep in a more important or advanced position than someone else: Sally’s a grade above me. above TOO IMPORTANT /əb v/ adv, prep too good or important for something: No one is above suspicion in this matter. 앩 He’s not above lying (= he sometimes lies) to protect himself. above ON PAGE /əb v/ adv, adj When used in a piece of writing, above means higher on the page, or on a previous page: Please send the articles to the address given above. the above plural noun all the people or things listed earlier: All of the above should be invited to the conference. above board adj [after v] describes a plan or business agreement that is honest and not trying to deceive anyone: The deal was completely open and above board. above-mentioned /əb vmen.tʃənd/ adj FORMAL refers to things or people in a document or book that have been mentioned earlier: All of the above-mentioned films won Oscars for best director. 7Compare undermentioned. abracadabra /b.rə.kədb.rə/ exclamation said by someone who is performing a magic trick, in order to





help them perform it successfully


abrade /əbred/ verb [T] SPECIALIZED to remove part of the surface of something by rubbing SPECIALIZED 1 [U] the process of rubbing away the surface of something: There seems to have been some abrasion of the surface. 2 [C] a place where the surface of something, such as skin, has been rubbed away: She had a small abrasion on her knee. abrasive CLEANING SUBSTANCE /əbre.sv/ noun [C] a substance used for rubbing away the surface of something, usually to clean it or make it shiny: You’ll need a strong abrasive for cleaning this sink. abrasive /əbre.sv/ adj: an abrasive cleaner/powder/liquid abrasive UNPLEASANT /əbre.sv/ adj rude and unfriendly: She has a rather abrasive manner. abrasively /əbre.s adv abrasiveness /əbre.sv.nəs/ noun [U] abreast /əbrest/ adv 1 describes two or more people who are next to each other and moving in the same direction: We were running/cycling two abreast. 앩 The motorcyclist came abreast of her car and shouted abuse at her. 2 keep abreast of sth to stay informed about the most recent facts about a subject or situation: I try to keep abreast of any developments. abridge /əbrd d/ verb [T] to make a book, play or piece of writing shorter by removing details and unimportant information: The book was abridged for children. abridged /əbrd d/ adj: I’ve only read the abridged edition/version of her novel. abridgment, abridgement /əbrd .mənt/ noun [C or U] abroad FOREIGN PLACE /əbrɔd/ adj [after v], adv in or to a foreign country or countries: He’s currently abroad on business. 앩 We always go abroad in the summer. abroad OUT /əbrɔd/ adj [after v] 1 LITERARY OR OLD USE outside; not at home: Not a soul was abroad that morning. 2 FORMAL describes ideas, feelings and opinions that are shared by many people: There’s a rumour abroad that she intends to leave the company. US /rə/ verb [T] FORMAL to end a abrogate /b.rəυ.et/  law, agreement or custom formally: The treaty was US /rə/ abrogated in 1929. abrogation /b.rəυe.ʃən/  noun [S or U] abrupt SUDDEN /əbr pt/ adj describes something that is sudden and unexpected, and often unpleasant: an abrupt change/movement 앩 Our conversation came to an abrupt end when George burst into the room. 앩 The road ended in an abrupt (= sudden and very steep) slope down to the sea. abruptly /əbr adv: The talks ended abruptly when one of the delegations walked out in protest. abruptness /əbr pt.nəs/ noun [U] abrupt UNFRIENDLY /əbr pt/ adj using too few words when talking, in a way that seems rude and unfriendly: an abrupt manner/reply 앩 He is sometimes very abrupt with clients. abruptly /əbr adv abruptness /əbr pt.nəs/ noun [U] ABS /e.bies/ noun [U] ABBREVIATION FOR anti-lock braking system: a brake fitted to some road vehicles that prevents SKIDDING (= uncontrolled sliding) by reducing the effects of sudden braking abs /bz/ plural noun INFORMAL ABDOMINAL muscles: exercises to tone/build up your abs abscess / noun [C] a painful swollen area on or in the body, which contains pus (= thick, yellow liquid): She had an abscess on her gum. US abscond ESCAPE /bskɒnd/  /skɑnd/ verb [I] to go away suddenly and secretly in order to escape from somewhere: Two prisoners absconded last night. 앩 She absconded from boarding school with her boyfriend. US absconder /bskɒn.dər/  /skɑn.d/ noun [C] A 14 year-old absconder from a children’s home in Bristol was found alive and well in London this morning. US /skɑnd/ verb [I] to go away abscond STEAL /bskɒnd/  suddenly and secretly because you have stolen something, usually money: They absconded with £10 000 of the company’s money. abseil UK /l/ verb [I] (US rappel) to go down a very steep slope by holding on to a rope which is fastened to the top of the slope: She abseiled down the rock face. abseil UK /l/ noun [C] (US rappel)

abrasion /əbre. ən/ noun

NOT PRESENT /b.sənts/ noun [C or U] when someone is not where they are usually expected to be: A new manager was appointed during/in her absence. 앩 She has had repeated absences from work this year. 쐌 Absence makes the heart grow fonder. SAYING This means that we feel more affection for people we love when they are not with us. absent /b.sənt/ adj not in the place where you are expected to be, especially at school or work: John has been absent from school/work for three days now. 앩 We drank a toast to absent friends. absent yourself /bsent/ verb [R] FORMAL to not go to a place where you are expected to be, especially a school or place of work: You cannot choose to absent yourself (from work/school) on a whim. absentee /b.sənti/ noun [C] someone who is not at school or work when they should be: There are several absentees in the school this week, because a lot of people have got flu. absenteeism /b.sənti..zəm/ noun [U] The high rate of absenteeism is costing the company a lot of money.


NOT EXISTING /b.sənts/ noun [U] when something does not exist: He drew attention to the absence of concrete evidence against the defendant. 앩 In the absence of (= because there were not) more suitable candidates, we decided to offer the job to Mr Conway. absent /b.sənt/ adj not present: Any sign of remorse was completely absent from her face. absent /b.sənt/ adj describes a person or the expression on their face when they are not paying attention to what is happening near them, and are thinking about other things absently /b.sə adv absentee ballot US noun [C] (AUS absentee vote) a piece of paper which voters who are unable to be present at an election can vote on and send in by post absentee landlord noun [C] a person who rents out a house, apartment or farm to someone, but rarely or never visits it absent-minded /b.səntman.dd/ adj describes someone who tends to forget things or does not pay attention to what is happening near them because they are thinking about other things absent-mindedly /b.səntman.d adv: She absent-mindedly left her umbrella on the bus. absent-mindedness /b.sənt man.dd.nəs/ noun [U] US // noun [U] a absinthe, absinth /b.sθ/ /sntθ/  strong alcoholic drink which is green and has a bitter taste


VERY GREAT /b.səlut/ // adj 1 very great or to the largest degree possible: a man of absolute integrity/discretion 앩 I have absolute faith in her judgment. 앩 There was no absolute proof of fraud. 2 [before n] used when expressing a strong opinion: He’s an absolute idiot! 앩 That’s absolute rubbish! absolutely /b.sə // adv 1 completely: I believed/trusted him absolutely. 앩 You must be absolutely silent or the birds won’t appear. 앩 We’ve achieved absolutely nothing today. 2 used for adding force to a strong adjective which is not usually used with ‘very’, or to a verb expressing strong emotion: It’s absolutely impossible to work with all this noise. 앩 The food was absolutely disgusting/delicious. 앩 I absolutely loathe/ adore jazz. 3 used as a way of strongly saying ‘yes’: "It was an excellent film, though." "Absolutely!" 4 absolutely not used as a way of strongly saying ‘no’: "Are you too tired to continue?" "Absolutely not!"



NOT CHANGING /b.səlut/ // adj [before n] not dependent on anything else; true, right, or the same in all situations: an absolute law/principle/doctrine 앩 Do you think there’s such a thing as absolute truth/beauty? 앩 Her contribution was better than most, but in absolute terms (= without comparing it with anything else) it was still rather poor.


POWERFUL /b.səlut/ // adj describes a ruler who has unlimited power: an absolute monarch US /t absolutism /b.sə.lu.t.zəm/  / noun [U] a political system in which a single ruler, group or political party has complete power over a country




absolute majority noun

[C] in an election, when someone has the support of more than half of the voters absolute zero noun [U] the lowest temperature possible, which is -273.15쎷C US /zɑlv/ verb [T] FORMAL (especially absolve /əbzɒlv/  in religion or law) to free someone from guilt, blame or responsibility for something: The report absolved her from/of all blame for the accident. 앩 The priest absolved him (of all his sins). absolution /b.səlu.ʃən/ noun [U] FORMAL official forgiveness, especially in the Christian religion, for something bad that someone has done or thought: She was granted/given absolution. US /zɔrb/ verb [T] 1 to take something absorb /əbzɔb/  in, especially gradually: Plants absorb carbon dioxide. 앩 In cold climates, houses need to have walls that will absorb heat. 앩 Towels absorb moisture. 앩 The drug is quickly absorbed into the bloodstream. 앩 Our countryside is increasingly being absorbed by/into the large cities. 7See also self-absorbed. 2 to understand facts or ideas completely and remember them: It’s hard to absorb so much information. 3 to reduce the effect of a physical force, shock or change: The barrier absorbed the main impact of the crash. 4 If someone’s work, or a book, film, etc. absorbs them, or they are absorbed in it, their attention is given completely to it: Simon was so absorbed in his book, he didn’t even notice me come in. US /zɔr/ adj able to take liquid absorbent /əbzɔ.bənt/  in through the surface and to hold it: absorbent paper ə US absorbency /əbzɔ.b  /zɔr/ noun [U] the ability to absorb liquid ə US absorption /əbzɔp.ʃ n/  /zɔrp/ noun [U] Some poisonous gases can enter the body by absorption through the skin. 앩 Her absorption in her work (= giving all of her attention to it) is so great that she thinks about nothing else. 7See also self-absorption at self-absorbed. US /zɔr/ adj describes someabsorbing /əbzɔ.bŋ/  thing that is very interesting and keeps your attention: I read her last novel and found it very absorbing. abstain NOT DO /bsten/ verb [I] to not do something, especially something enjoyable that you think might be bad: He took a vow to abstain from alcohol/smoking/sex. US abstainer /bste.nər/  /n/ noun [C] abstention /bstent.ʃən/ noun [U] FORMAL Abstention from alcohol is essential while you are taking this medication. abstinence /.nənts/ noun [U] The best way to avoid pregnancy is total abstinence from sex. abstain NOT VOTE /bsten/ verb [I] to decide not to use your vote: 63 members voted in favour, 39 opposed and 5 US /n/ noun [C] ababstained. abstainer /bste.nər/  stention /bstent.ʃən/ noun [C or U] There were high levels of abstention (from voting) in the last elections. 앩 There were ten votes in favour, six against, and three abstentions. abstemious /bsti.mi.əs/ adj FORMAL not doing things which give you pleasure, especially not eating good food or drinking alcohol abstract GENERAL /b.strkt/ adj 1 existing as an idea, feeling or quality, not as a material object: Truth and beauty are abstract concepts. 2 describes an argument or discussion that is general and not based on particular examples: This debate is becoming too abstract – let’s have some hard facts! the abstract noun [S] general ideas: I have difficulty dealing with the abstract – let’s discuss particular cases. 앩 So far we’ve only discussed the question in the abstract (= without referring to any real examples). abstraction /bstrk.ʃən/ noun [C] FORMAL She’s always talking in abstractions (= in a general way, without real examples). abstract ART /b.strkt/ adj describes a type of painting, drawing or sculpture which tries to represent the real or imagined qualities of objects or people by using shapes, lines and colour, and does not try to show their outer appearance as it would be seen in a photograph: abstract art 앩 an abstract painter abstract /b.strkt/ noun [C] a painting which represents the qualities of something, not its outer appearance


SHORT DOCUMENT /b.strkt/ noun [C] a shortened form of a speech, article, book, etc., giving only the most important facts or arguments: There is a section at the end of the magazine which includes abstracts of recent articles/books. abstracted /bstrk.td/ adj FORMAL not giving attention to what is happening around you because you are thinking about something else: He gave her an abstracted glance, then returned to his book. abstractedly /bstrk.t adv abstract noun noun [C] a noun which refers to a thing which does not exist as a material object: ‘Happiness’, ‘honesty’ and ‘liberty’ are abstract nouns. 7Compare concrete noun. abstruse /bstrus/ adj FORMAL difficult to understand: an abstruse philosophical essay US /sd/ adj ridiculous or unreasonabsurd /əbsd/  able; foolish in an amusing way: What an absurd thing to say! 앩 Don’t be so absurd! Of course I want you to come. 앩 It’s an absurd situation – neither of them will talk to the other. 앩 Do I look absurd in this hat? the absurd things that happen that are ridiculous or unreasonable: The whole situation borders on the absurd. 앩 She has a keen sense of the absurd. US absurdly /ə  /sd/ adv: You’re behaving absurdly. 앩 It was absurdly (= unreasonably) expensive. US /z.də.t absurdity /əbz.d.ti/ /s/  i/ noun [C or U] Standing there naked, I was suddenly struck by the absurdity of the situation. 앩 There are all sorts of absurdities (= things that are ridiculous) in the proposal. ABTA /b.tə/ group noun [S] ABBREVIATION FOR Association of British Travel Agents: a British organization which protects travellers and people on holiday if a company that arranges travel fails to do something or stops trading abundant /əb n.dənt/ adj FORMAL more than enough: an abundant supply of food 앩 There is abundant evidence that cars have a harmful effect on the environment. 앩 Cheap consumer goods are abundant (= exist in large amounts) in this part of the world. abundance /əb n.dənts/ noun [S or U] There was an abundance of wine at the wedding. 앩 We had wine in abundance. abundantly /əb n.də adv: FORMAL The plant grows abundantly in woodland. 앩 You’ve made your feelings abundantly clear (= very clear). abuse BEHAVIOUR /əbjuz/ verb [T] to use or treat someone or something wrongly or badly, especially in a way that is to your own advantage: She is continually abusing her position/authority by getting other people to do things for her. 앩 I never expected that he would abuse the trust I placed in him. 앩 Several of the children had been sexually/physically/emotionally abused. abuse /əbjus/ noun [C or U] when someone uses or treats someone or something wrongly or badly, especially in a way that is to their own advantage: an abuse (= wrong use) of privilege/power/someone’s kindness 앩 sexual/ physical/mental abuse (= bad treatment) 앩 She claimed to have been a victim of child abuse (= the treatment of children in a bad, esp. sexual, way). 앩 Drug and alcohol abuse (= Using these substances in a bad way) contributed to his early death. US /z/ noun [C] someone who abuses abuser /əbju.zər/  someone or something: a child abuser 앩 a drug/solvent abuser abuse SPEECH /əbjuz/ verb [T] to speak to someone rudely or cruelly: The crowd started abusing him after he failed to save a goal. abuse /əbjus/ noun [U] rude and offensive words said to another person: He had apparently experienced a lot of verbal abuse from his co-workers. 앩 He hurled (a stream/torrent of) abuse at her (= He said a lot of rude and offensive things to her). 앩 ‘Idiot!’ is a mild term of abuse (= an insulting expression). abusive /əbju.sv/ adj using rude and offensive words: an abusive letter/telephone call 앩 He was apparently abusive to the flight attendants because they refused to serve him alcohol. abut /əb t/ verb [T no passive; I + prep] -tt- FORMAL If a building or area of land abuts on something, it is next to it or






touches it on one side: Mexico abuts (on) some of the richest parts of the United States. 앩 Their house abutted (onto) the police station. abuzz /əb z/ adj [after v] filled with noise and activity: When we arrived, the party was in full swing and the room was abuzz. 앩 The air was abuzz with military helicopters, airlifting injured people and equipment. abysmal /əbz.məl/ adj very bad: abysmal working conditions 앩 The food was abysmal. 앩 The standard of the students’ work is abysmal. abysmally /əbz.məl.i/ adv: an abysmally poor book abyss /əbs/ noun [C usually sing] 1 LITERARY a very deep hole which seems to have no bottom 2 a difficult situation that brings trouble or destruction: The country is sinking/plunging into an abyss of violence and lawlessness. 앩 She found herself on the edge of an abyss. AC ELECTRICITY /esi/ noun [U] ABBREVIATION FOR alternating current: electrical current which regularly changes the direction in which it flows 7Compare DC ELECTRICITY. AC AIR /esi/ noun [C or U] US ABBREVIATION FOR air conditioner or air conditioning acacia /əke.ʃə/ noun [C or U] a tree from warm parts of the world which has small leaves and yellow or white flowers academic STUDYING /k.ədem.k/ adj 1 relating to schools, colleges and universities, or connected with studying and thinking, not with practical skills: academic subjects/qualifications/books 앩 an academic institution 앩 the academic year (= the time, usually from September to June, during which students go to school or college) 앩 academic standards 2 describes someone who is clever and enjoys studying: I was never a particularly academic child. academically /k.ə dem..kli/ adv: She’s always done well academically. 앩 It may be that a child is bright, but not academically inclined. academe /k.ə.dim/ noun [U] FORMAL the part of society, especially universities, that is connected with study and thinking academia /k.ədi.mi.ə/ noun [U] the part of society, especially universities, that is connected with studying and thinking, or the activity or job of studying: A graduate of law and economics from Moscow State University, he had spent his life in academia. academic /k.ədem.k/ noun [C] (US ALSO academician) someone who teaches at a college, or who studies as part of their job academic THEORETICAL /k.ədem.k/ adj: theoretical and not related to practical effects in real life: a purely academic argument/question academy /əkd.ə.mi/ noun [C] an organization intended to protect and develop an art, science, language, etc., or a school which teaches a particular subject or trains people for a particular job: a military/police academy 앩 the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art academician /əkd.əmʃ.ən/ noun [C] a member of an academy: In 1823 he became professor and academician at Munich. Academy Award noun [C] (ALSO Oscar) one of a set of American prizes given each year to the best film, the best actor or actress in any film and to other people involved in the production of films US a cappella /.kəpel.ə/  /ɑ/ adj [before n], adv SPECIALIZED sung by a group of people without the help of any musical instruments accede /əksid/ verb P H R A S A L V E R B S W I T H accede

쑿 accede to sth AGREE phrasal verb FORMAL to agree to do what people have asked you to do: He graciously acceded to our request. 앩 It is doubtful whether the government will ever accede to the nationalists’ demands for independence. 쑿 accede to sth BECOME phrasal verb FORMAL accede to the throne/accede to power to become king or queen, or to take a position of power: The diaries were written in 1837 when Queen Victoria acceded to the throne. accession /əkseʃ.ən/ noun [U] 1926 was the year of Emperor Hirohito’s accession to the throne.



US /.et/ verb [I] /əksel.ə.ret/ 

1 When a vehicle or its driver accelerates, the speed of

the vehicle increases: I accelerated to overtake the bus. 7Compare decelerate. 2 If a person or object accelerates, it goes faster. acceleration /əksel.əre.ʃən/ noun [U] when something goes faster, or its ability to do this: An older car will have poor acceleration. 앩 High winds significantly hampered the plane’s acceleration. US /.e.t accelerator /əksel.ə.re.tər/  / noun [C] 1 the PEDAL (= part that you push with your foot) in a vehicle that makes it go faster 7See picture Car on page Centre 12 2 SPECIALIZED in physics, a machine which makes PARTICLES (= small pieces of matter) move very fast US /.et/ verb [I accelerate HAPPEN FASTER /əksel.ə.ret/  or T] to happen or make something happen sooner or faster: Inflation is likely to accelerate this year, adding further upward pressure on interest rates. 앩 They use special chemicals to accelerate the growth of crops. acceleration /əksel.əre.ʃən/ noun [S or U] The acceleration in the decline of manufacturing industry is being blamed on the high value of sterling. accent PRONUNCIATION /k.sənt/ noun [C] the way in which people in a particular area, country or social group pronounce words: He’s got a strong French/ Scottish accent. 앩 She’s French but she speaks with an impeccable English accent. 앩 He speaks with a broad/ heavy/strong/thick Yorkshire accent. 앩 I thought I could detect a slight West Country accent. accented US /t /td/  d/ adj: He spoke in heavily accented English. accent MARK /k.sənt/ noun [C] a mark written or printed over a letter to show you how to pronounce it: a grave accent 앩 There’s an acute accent on the ‘e’ of ‘cafe´’. accent EMPHASIS /k.sənt/ noun [C] SPECIALIZED a special emphasis given to a particular syllable in a word, word in a sentence, or note in a set of musical notes: The accent falls on the final syllable. 쐌 the accent is on sth great importance is given to a particular thing or quality: This season the accent is definitely on long, flowing romantic clothes. accent /əksent/ verb [T] to emphasize: In any advertising campaign, you must accent the areas where your product is better than the competition. 앩 SPECIALIZED Accent the first note of every bar. accentuate /əksen.tju.et/ verb [T] to emphasize a particular feature of something or to make something more noticeable: Her dress was tightly belted, accentuating the slimness of her waist. 앩 The new policy only serves to accentuate the inadequacy of provision for the homeless. accentuation /əksen.tjue.ʃən/ noun [U] accept TAKE /əksept/ verb 1 [T] to agree to take something: Do you accept credit cards? 앩 She was in London to accept an award for her latest novel. 앩 I offered her an apology, but she wouldn’t accept it. 앩 I accept full responsibility for the failure of the plan. 앩 The new telephones will accept coins of any denomination. 2 [I or T] to say ‘yes’ to an offer or invitation: We’ve offered her the job, but I don’t know whether she’ll accept it. 앩 I’ve just accepted an invitation to the opening-night party. 앩 I’ve been invited to their wedding but I haven’t decided whether to accept. acceptable /əksep.tə.bl/ adj: "Will a £50 donation be enough?" "Yes, that would be quite acceptable (= enough)." US acceptability /əksep.təbl..ti/  /ə.ti/ noun [U] acceptance /əksep.tənts/ noun [C or U] COMMON LEARNER ERROR

accept or agree? When you accept an invitation, job, or offer, you say yes to something which is offered. Accept is never followed by another verb.

They offered me the job and I’ve accepted it. They offered me the job and I’ve accepted to take it. When you agree to do something, you say that you will do something which someone asks you to do.

They offered me the job and I agreed to take it.


APPROVE /əksept/ verb [T] to consider something or someone as satisfactory: The manuscript was accepted




for publication last week. 앩 She was accepted as a full member of the society. 앩 His fellow workers refused to accept him (= to include him as one of their group). acceptable /əksept.ə.bl/ adj satisfactory and able to be agreed to or approved of: Clearly we need to come to an arrangement that is acceptable to both parties. 앩 So what is an acceptable level of radiation? 앩 This kind of attitude is simply not acceptable. acceptance /əksep.tənts/ noun [C or U] I’ve had acceptances from three universities (= Three universities have agreed to take me as a student). 앩 The idea rapidly gained acceptance (= became approved of) in political circles. accepted /əksep.td/ adj: ‘Speed bump’ now seems to be the generally accepted term (= the word that most people use) for those ridges in the road that slow traffic down.


BELIEVE /əksept/ verb [T] to believe that something is true: The police refused to accept her version of the story. 앩 He still hasn’t accepted the situation (= realized that he cannot change it). 앩 [+ that ] I can’t accept that there’s nothing we can do. access / noun [U] the method or possibility of approaching a place or person, or the right to use or look at something: The only access to the village is by boat. 앩 The main access to (= entrance to) the building is at the side. 앩 The tax inspector had/gained complete access to the company files. 앩 The system has been designed to give the user quick and easy access to the required information. 앩 The children’s father was refused access to them at any time (= refused official permission to see them). access / verb [T] to open a computer FILE (= a collection of information stored on a computer) in order to look at or change information in it accessible /əkses.ə.bl/ adj 1 able to be reached or easily obtained: The resort is easily accessible by road, rail and air. 앩 The problem with some of these drugs is that they are so very accessible. 2 easy to understand: Lea Anderson is a choreographer who believes in making dance accessible. 앩 Covent Garden has made some attempt to make opera accessible to a wider public. US /ə.t accessibility /əkses.əbl..ti/  i/ noun [U] Two new roads are being built to increase accessibility to the town centre. 앩 The accessibility of her plays (= the fact that they can be understood) means that she is able to reach a wide audience. access course noun [C] UK a set of classes which people take so they can obtain a qualification which can be used to get into university or college: She didn’t have any formal qualifications but took an access course to get into university. accession /əkseʃ.ən/ noun [U] 7See at accede to BECOME. US // noun [C usually pl] EXTRA /əkses.ər.i/  something added to a machine or to clothing, which has a useful or decorative purpose: She wore a green wool suit with matching accessories (= shoes, hat, bag, etc.). 앩 Sunglasses are much more than a fashion accessory. 앩 Accessories for the top-of-the-range car include leather upholstery, a CD player, electric windows and a sunroof. US /.az/ accessorize, UK USUALLY -ise /əkses.ər.az/  verb [T] MAINLY US to add an accessory or accessories to something: She was wearing a little black dress, accessorized simply with a silver necklace.


US // noun [C] someone CRIMINAL /əkses.ər.i/  who helps another person to commit a crime but does not take part in it: an accessory to murder 쐌 accessory after the fact LEGAL someone who helps someone after they have committed a crime, for example by hiding them from the police 쐌 accessory before the fact LEGAL someone who helps in the preparation of a crime access provider noun [C] (ALSO ISP) a company that provides access to the Internet, allows you to use email, and gives you space on the Internet to display documents: the UK’s largest internet access provider access road noun [C] (ALSO access route) 1 a road leading from or to a particular place 2 UK a road leading to a motorway


access time noun [C usually sing] SPECIALIZED the time it takes a computer to find information

[C] 1 something which happens unexpectedly and unintentionally, and which often damages something or injures someone: Josh had an accident and spilled water all over his work. 앩 She was injured in a car/road accident (= when one car hit another). 앩 I didn’t mean to knock him over - it was an accident. 2 by accident without intending to, or without being intended: I deleted the file by accident. 앩 I found her letter by accident as I was looking through my files. 쐌 an accident waiting to happen a very dangerous situation in which an accident is very likely 쐌 have an accident to urinate or excrete unexpectedly and unintentionally: Even a six-year-old can have an accident at night sometimes. 쐌 more by accident than design because of luck and not because of skill or organization: The play was a success more by accident than design. 쐌 Accidents will happen. SAYING said after an accident in order to make it seem less bad US accidental /k.sden.təl/  /təl/ adj happening by chance: Reports suggest that 11 soldiers were killed by accidental fire from their own side. 앩 The site was located after the accidental discovery of bones in a field. US /t accidentally /k.sden.təl.i/  əl/ adv: I accidentally knocked a glass over. 쐌 accidentally on purpose If you do something accidentally on purpose, you do it intentionally but pretend it happened by chance: I’ve never liked these glasses of Peter’s. I might drop them one day – accidentally on purpose. accidental death noun [C] LEGAL a VERDICT (= opinion stated at the end of a trial) that is given when a death was the result of an accident and not of murder or SUICIDE US accident-prone /k.s.dəntprəυn/  /proυn/ adj describes someone who often has accidents, usually because they are very awkward or clumsy acclaim /əklem/ noun [U] public approval and praise: Despite the critical acclaim, the novel did not sell well. 앩 Hamlet was played by Romania’s leading actor, Ion Caramitrou, to rapturous acclaim. acclaim /əklem/ verb [T often passive] to give public approval and praise: She was universally/widely/ publicly acclaimed for her contribution to the discovery. 앩 She is being acclaimed (= publicly recognized) as the greatest dancer of her generation. acclaimed /əklemd/ adj: an acclaimed artist/writer/poet 앩 a highly acclaimed novel/film 앩 ‘Dinner Party’, based on the critically acclaimed novel by Bill Davies, was made into a film last year. acclamation /k.ləme.ʃən/ noun [U] FORMAL His speech was greeted with (shouts of) acclamation (= loud expressions of approval). US acclimatize, UK USUALLY -ise /əkla.mə.taz/  /taz/ verb [I or T] (US ALSO acclimate) to (cause to) change to suit different conditions of life, weather, etc: More time will be needed for the troops and equipment to become acclimatized to desert conditions. 앩 We found it impossible to acclimatize ourselves to the new working conditions. 앩 The defending champion is Grant Turner of England, who has acclimatized to the 90쎷F sunshine by spending the past month in Florida. 앩 "Why is it that it rains all the time in England?" "Don’t worry – you’ll soon acclimatize." acclimatization, UK USUALLY -isation US /t /əkla.mə.taze.ʃən/  / noun [U] accolade /k.ə.led/ noun [C] FORMAL praise and approval: This is his centennial year and he’s been granted the ultimate accolade – his face on a set of three postage stamps. 앩 Her approval was the highest accolade he could have received. US accommodate FIND A PLACE FOR /əkɒm.ə.det/  / kɑ.mə/ verb [T] to provide with a place to live or to be stored in: New students may be accommodated in halls of residence. 앩 FORMAL There wasn’t enough space to accommodate the files. US /kɑ.mə/ noun [U] accommodation /əkɒm.əde.ʃən/  MAINLY UK a place to live, work, stay, etc. in: There’s a shortage of cheap accommodation (= places to live). 앩 We

accident /k.s.dənt/ noun






have first and second class accommodation (= seats) on this flight. US accommodations /əkɒm.əde.ʃənz/  /kɑ.mə/ plural noun US a place to stay when you are travelling, especially a hotel room: Sweepstakes winners will enjoy a week-long stay in luxury accommodations in Las Vegas. US /kɑ.mə/ verb [T] accommodate SUIT /əkɒm.ə.det/  to give what is needed to someone: The new policies fail to accommodate the disabled. 앩 We always try to accommodate (= help) our clients with financial assistance if necessary. accommodate yourself verb [R] to change yourself or your behaviour to suit another person or new conditions: Some find it hard to accommodate themselves to the new working conditions. US accommodating /əkɒm.ə.de.tŋ/  /kɑ.mə.de.tŋ/ adj describes a person who is eager or willing to help other people, for example by changing their plans: I’m sure she’ll help you – she’s always very accommodating. accompaniment /ək m.pən..mənt/ noun [C] something that you eat or drink with something else: A dry champagne makes the ideal accompaniment for/to this dish. accompany GO WITH /ək m.pə.ni/ verb [T] 1 to go with someone or to be provided or exist at the same time as something: The course books are accompanied by four cassettes. 앩 Depression is almost always accompanied by insomnia. 앩 The salmon was accompanied by (= served with) a fresh green salad. 2 SLIGHTLY FORMAL to show someone how to get to somewhere: Would you like me to accompany you to your room? 3 FORMAL to go with someone to a social event or to an entertainment: "May I accompany you to the ball?" he asked her. 앩 I have two tickets for the theatre on Saturday evening – would you care to accompany me? accompanying /ək m.pə.ni.ŋ/ adj appearing or going with someone or something else: Front-page stories broke the news of the princess leaving, and accompanying photographs showed her getting on the plane. 앩 Children under 17 require an accompanying parent or guardian to see this film. accompany MUSIC /ək m.pə.ni/ verb [T] to sing or play an instrument with another musician or singer: Miss Jessop accompanied Mr Bentley on the piano. accompaniment /ək m.pən..mənt/ noun [C or U] a song with piano accompaniment 앩 HUMOROUS We worked to the accompaniment of (= while hearing the sound of) Mr French’s drill. accompanist /ək m.pə.nst/ noun [C] The singer’s accompanist on the piano was Charles Harman. US /kɑm/ noun [C] a person accomplice /əks/  who helps someone else to commit a crime or to do something morally wrong US accomplish /əkʃ/  /kɑm/ verb [T] to finish something successfully or to achieve something: The students accomplished the task in less than ten minutes. 앩 She accomplished such a lot during her visit. 앩 I feel as if I’ve accomplished nothing since I left my job. US /kɑm/ noun 1 accomplishment /əkʃ.mənt/  [C] something that is successful, or that is achieved after a lot of work or effort: Getting the two leaders to sign a peace treaty was his greatest accomplishment. 7See also accomplishment at accomplished. 2 [U] the completion of something: We celebrated the successful accomplishment of our task. US accomplished /əkʃt/  /kɑm/ adj skilled: She’s a very accomplished pianist/painter/horsewoman. 앩 He was accomplished in all the arts. US /kɑm/ noun [C] accomplishment /əkʃ.mənt/  a skill: Cordon-bleu cookery is just one of her many accomplishments. 7See also accomplishment at accomplish. US /kɔrd/ noun [C or U] (a foraccord AGREEMENT /əkɔd/  mal) agreement: On 31 May the two leaders signed a 앩 peace accord. Before 1987, the accord between the Labour government and the unions was a simple affair. 앩 The project is completely in accord with government policy. 쐌 of your own accord If you do something of your own accord, you do it without being asked to do it: She came

of her own accord. No one asked her to come. 쐌 with one accord FORMAL If people do something with one accord, they do it together and in complete agreement: With one accord, the delegates walked out of the conference. US accordance /əkɔ.dənts/  /kɔr/ noun FORMAL in accordance with a rule/law/wish/etc. following or obeying a rule/law/wish/etc: In accordance with her wishes, she was buried in France. US /kɔr/ adv FORMAL in a way accordingly /əkɔ.dŋ.li/  that is suitable or right for the situation: When we receive your instructions we shall act accordingly. 앩 She’s an expert in her field, and is paid accordingly. US /kɔrd/ verb [T] FORMAL to treat accord GIVE /əkɔd/  someone specially, usually by showing respect: [+ two objects] The massed crowds of supporters accorded him a hero’s welcome. 앩 Certainly in our society teachers don’t enjoy the respect that is accorded to doctors and lawyers. 쑿 accord with sth phrasal verb FORMAL to be the same as something, or to agree with something: His version of events does not accord with witnesses’ statements. according to AS STATED BY prep as stated by: According to Sarah they’re not getting on very well at the moment. 앩 According to our records you owe us $130. according to FOLLOWING prep in a way that agrees with: Students are all put in different groups according to their ability. 쐌 according to plan Something that happens according to plan, happens in the way it was intended to: Did it all go according to plan? US /kɔr/ noun [C] a box-shaped accordion /əkɔ.di.ən/  musical instrument, held in the hands, consisting of a folded central part with a keyboard at each end, which is played by pushing the two ends towards each other US /kɑst/ verb [T often passive] FORMAL to accost /əkɒst/  approach or stop and speak to someone in a threatening way: I’m usually accosted by beggars and drunks as I walk to the station. account BANK /əkaυnt/ (ALSO bank account) an arrangement with a bank to keep your money there and to allow you to take it out when you need to: I’ve opened an account with a building society. 앩 I paid the money into my account this morning. 앩 (UK) She paid the cheque into/(US) She deposited the check in her account. 앩 I need to draw some money out of my account. 쐌 turn/use sth to good account UK FORMAL to use your skills and abilities to produce good results: I think we’d all agree that you turned your negotiating skills to very good account in this afternoon’s meeting. account SHOP /əkaυnt/ noun [C] 1 an agreement with a shop or company that allows you to buy things and pay for them later: Could you put it on/charge it to my account (= can I pay for it later), please? 앩 Do you have an account at this store/with us, madam? 앩 Could you please pay/settle your account in full (= give us all the money you owe us). 2 a customer who does business with a company: If the advertising agency loses the United Beer account, it will make a big dent in their profits. account REPORT /əkaυnt/ noun [C] a written or spoken description of an event: She gave a thrilling account of her life in the jungle. 앩 He kept a detailed account of the suspect’s movements. 앩 Several eyewitnesses’ accounts differed considerably from the official version of events. 쐌 by/from all accounts as said by most people: By all accounts, San Francisco is a city that’s easy to fall in love with. 쐌 be brought/called to account MAINLY UK to be forced to explain something you did wrong, and usually to be punished: We must ensure that the people responsible for the violence are brought to account. 쐌 by your own account Something that is true by your own account is what you claim is true: By his own account, he’s quite wealthy. account REASON /əkaυnt/ noun FORMAL on account of sth because of something: He doesn’t drink alcohol on account of his health. 쐌 on your account If something is said to be on someone’s or something’s account, it is because of that person or




thing: I’m not very hungry so please don’t cook on my account (= don’t cook just for me). 앩 They were tired, but not any less enthusiastic on that account. 쐌 on no account If something must on no account/not on any account be done, it must not be done at any time or for any reason: Employees must on no account make personal telephone calls from the office. 앩 These records must not on any account be changed. 쐌 take into account/take account of to consider or remember when judging a situation: I hope my teacher will take into account the fact that I was ill just before the exams when she marks my paper. 앩 A good architect takes into account the building’s surroundings. 앩 Britain’s tax system takes no account of children. 앩 I think you have to take into account that he’s a good deal younger than the rest of us. account JUDGE /əkaυnt/ verb [T + obj + n or adj] FORMAL to think of someone or something in the stated way; judge: She was accounted a genius by all who knew her work. account IMPORTANCE /əkaυnt/ noun FORMAL be of no/ little account to not be important: It’s of no account to me whether he comes or not. 앩 His opinion is of little account to me. P H R A S A L V E R B S W I T H account

쑿 account (to sb) for sth EXPLAIN phrasal verb to explain the reason for something or the cause of something: Can you account for your absence last Friday? 앩 She was unable to account for over $5 000 (= she could not explain where the money was). 앩 He has to account to his manager for (= tell his manager about and explain) all his movements. 쐌 There’s no accounting for taste. SAYING said when it is difficult to explain why different people like different things, especially things which you do not like: "I love working at weekends." "Well, there’s no accounting for taste, is there!" 쑿 account for sth BE phrasal verb to form the total of something: Students account for the vast majority of our customers. US /t accountable /əkaυn.tə.bl/  ə/ adj Someone who is

accountable is completely responsible for what they do and must be able to give a satisfactory reason for it: She is accountable only to the managing director. 앩 The recent tax reforms have made government more accountable for its spending. 앩 Politicians should be accountable to the public who elected them. US /t accountability /əkaυn.təbl..ti/  əbl.ə.ti/ noun [U] There were furious demands for greater police accountability (= for the police to be made to explain their actions to the public). US /t accountant /əkaυn.tənt/  ənt/ noun [C] someone who keeps or examines the records of money received, paid and owed by a company or person: a firm of accountants US /t accountancy UK /əkaυn.tə  ənt/ noun [U] (US accounting) the job of being an accountant: He works in accountancy. 앩 an accountancy firm US /t accounting /əkaυn.tŋ/  ŋ/ noun [U] 1 the skill or activity of keeping records of the money a person or organization earns and spends 2 US (UK accountancy) the job of being an accountant accounts /əkaυnts/ plural noun an official record of all the money a person or company has spent and received: I keep my own accounts. accoutrements, US ALSO accouterments /əku.trə. US /əku.t .mənts/ plural noun FORMAL the equipmənts/  ment needed for a particular activity or way of life accredit /əkred.t/ verb [T] to officially recognize, accept or approve of someone or something: The agency was not accredited by the Philippine Consulate to offer contracts to Filipinos abroad. US accredited /əkred..td/  /td/ adj officially recognized or approved: an accredited drama school 앩 accredited war correspondents accreditation /əkred. US /t e/ noun [U] The college received/was given te.ʃən/  full accreditation in 1965. accretion /əkri.ʃən/ noun [C or U] FORMAL gradual increase or growth by the addition of new layers or parts:

The fund was increased by the accretion of new shareholders. 앩 The room hadn’t been cleaned for years and showed several accretions of dirt and dust.

accrue /əkru/ verb

[I] FORMAL to increase in number or

amount over a period of time: Interest will accrue on the account at a rate of 7%. 앩 Little benefit will accrue to London (= London will receive little benefit) from the new road scheme.

accumulate /əkju.mjυ.let/ verb 1 [T] to collect a large number of things over a long period of time: As people accumulate more wealth, they tend to spend a greater proportion of their incomes. 앩 The company said the debt was accumulated during its acquisition of nine individual businesses. 앩 We’ve accumulated so much rubbish over the years. 2 [I] to gradually increase in number or amount: A thick layer of dust had accumulated in the room. 앩 If you don’t sort out the papers on your desk on a regular basis they just keep on accumulating. accumulation /əkju.mjυle.ʃən/ noun [C or U] Despite this accumulation of evidence, the Government persisted in doing nothing. 앩 Accumulations of sand can be formed by the action of waves on coastal beaches.



US /t /əkju.mjυ.le.tər/  / noun [C] (US

storage battery) a battery that collects and stores electricity

accurate /k.jυ.rət/ adj correct, exact and without any

mistakes: an accurate machine 앩 an accurate description 앩 The figures they have used are just not accurate. 앩 Her novel is an accurate reflection of life in post-war Spain. 앩 We hope to become more accurate in predicting earthquakes. ✻ NOTE: The opposite is inaccurate. accurately /k.jυ.rə adv: The plans should be drawn as accurately as possible, showing all the measurements. accuracy /k.jυ.rə.si/ noun [U] We can predict changes with a surprising degree of accuracy.

US /kst/ adj accursed /ək.sd/ /kst/ 

[before n] OLD

very annoying: I can’t get around like I used to – it’s this accursed rheumatism!


US /t accusative /əkju.zə.tv/  v/ noun [U] the form of a

noun, pronoun or adjective which is used in some languages to show that the word is the DIRECT OBJECT of a US /t v/ adj: the accusaverb accusative /əkju.zə.tv/  tive plural

accuse /əkjuz/ verb

[T] to say that someone has done something morally wrong, illegal or unkind: "It wasn’t my fault." "Don’t worry, I’m not accusing you." 앩 He’s been accused of robbery/murder. 앩 Are you accusing me of lying? 앩 The surgeon was accused of negligence. 쐌 stand accused of sth FORMAL If you stand accused of doing something wrong, people say that you have done it: The government stands accused of eroding freedom of speech. accusation /k.jυze.ʃən/ noun [C or U] a statement saying that someone has done something morally wrong, illegal or unkind, or the fact of accusing someone: You can’t just make wild accusations like that! 앩 He glared at me with an air of accusation. 앩 [+ that ] What do you say to the accusation that you are unfriendly and unhelpful? US /tɔ.ri/ adj accusatory /əkju.zə.tri/ /k.jυze.tər.i/  FORMAL suggesting that you think someone has done something bad: When he spoke his tone was accusatory. 앩 She gave me an accusatory look. the accused noun [C + sing or pl v] LEGAL the person who is on trial in a court, or the people on trial in a court: The accused protested her innocence. 앩 The accused were US /z/ noun [C] all found guilty. accuser /əkju.zər/  accusing /əkju.zŋ/ adj: an accusing glance/look accusingly /əkju.zŋ.li/ adv: "Has this dog been fed today?" she asked accusingly.

accustom /ək s.təm/ verb

쑿 accustom yourself to sth phrasal verb [R] to make yourself familiar with new conditions: It’ll take time for me to accustom myself to the changes. accustomed /ək s.təmd/ adj 1 familiar with something: She quickly became accustomed to his messy ways. 앩 I’m not accustomed to being treated like this. 2 FORMAL usual: She performed the task with her accustomed ease.







PLAYING CARD /es/ noun [C] one of the four playing cards with a single mark or spot, which have the highest or lowest value in many card games: the ace of hearts/clubs/spades/diamonds 쐌 come within an ace of sth UK to almost achieve something: She came within an ace of winning the match. 쐌 an ace up your sleeve (US ALSO an ace in the hole) secret knowledge or a secret skill which will give you an advantage 쐌 have/hold all the aces to be in a strong position when you are competing with someone else because you have all the advantages: In a situation like this, it’s the big companies who hold all the aces. ace SKILLED PERSON /es/ noun [C] INFORMAL a person who is very skilled at something: a tennis/flying ace ace /es/ adj OLD-FASHIONED SLANG excellent: He’s an ace footballer. 앩 That’s an ace bike you’ve got there. ace /es/ verb [T] US INFORMAL to do very well in an exam: I was up all night studying, but it was worth it – I aced my chemistry final. ace TENNIS /es/ noun [C] in tennis, a SERVE (= a hit of the ball which starts play) which is so strong and fast that the other player cannot return the ball: That’s the third ace that Violente has served this match. US /s/ adj FORMAL describes someacerbic /əs.bk/  thing that is spoken or written in a way that is direct, clever and cruel: The letters show the acerbic wit for which Parker was both admired and feared. acerbity US /s.bə.t /əs.bə.ti/  i/ noun [U] US /t acetaminophen /əsi.təmn.ə.fen/  ə/ noun [C or U] plural acetaminophens or acetaminophen US FOR paracetamol acetate /s..tet/ noun [U] a chemical substance made from ACETIC ACID, or a smooth artificial cloth made from this US /t acetic acid /əsi.tks.d/  k/ noun [U] a colourless acid with a strong smell which is contained in vinegar US acetone /s..təυn/  /toυn/ noun [U] a strong-smelling colourless liquid which is used in the production of various chemicals and is sometimes added to paint to make it more liquid US /set acetylene /əset.ə.lin/  / noun [U] a colourless gas which burns with a very hot bright flame, used in cutting and joining metal ache /ek/ noun [C] 1 a continuous pain which is unpleasant but not strong: As you get older, you have all sorts of aches and pains. 앩 I’ve got a dull (= slight) ache in my lower back. 2 used in combinations with parts of the body to mean a continuous pain in the stated part: earache/headache/toothache/backache 앩 I’ve had a stomach ache all morning. ache /ek/ verb [I] My head/ tooth/back aches. 앩 I ache/I’m aching all over. 앩 I’ve got one or two aching muscles after yesterday’s run. achy /e.ki/ adj: INFORMAL I’ve been feeling tired and achy (= full of pains) all morning. 쑿 ache for sth phrasal verb LITERARY to want something very much: He was lonely and aching for love. achieve /ətʃiv/ verb [T] to succeed in finishing something or reaching an aim, especially after a lot of work or effort: The government’s training policy, he claimed, was achieving its objectives. 앩 She finally achieved her ambition to visit South America. 앩 I’ve been working all day, but I feel as if I’ve achieved nothing. 7See also underachieve. achievable /ətʃi.və.bl/ adj describes a task, etc. that is possible to achieve: Before you set your targets, make sure that they are achievable. US /v/ noun 1 high/low achiever achiever /ətʃi.vər/  a person who achieves more/less than the average: Not enough attention is given to the low achievers in the class. 2 under achiever someone who is less successful than they should be at school or at work achievement /ətʃiv.mənt/ noun [C or U] something very good and difficult that you have succeeded in doing: Whichever way you look at it, an Olympic silver medal is a remarkable achievement for one so young. 앩 The Tale of Genji has been described as the greatest achievement of Japanese literature. 앩 It gives you a sense of achievement if you actually make it to the end of a very long book.

Achilles heel /əkl.izhəl/ noun

[C usually sing] a small fault or weakness in a person or system that can result in its failure: A misbehaving minister is regarded as a government’s Achilles heel and is expected to resign. Achilles tendon /əkl.izten.dən/ noun [C] a small muscular cord just above the heel, connecting the heel bone to the muscles in the lower part of the leg 7See picture The Body on page Centre 5 achingly /e.kŋ.li/ adv LITERARY extremely: Sung by the world’s greatest tenor, this aria is achingly beautiful. achoo /ətʃu/ exclamation atishoo acid LIQUID SUBSTANCE /s.d/ noun [C or U] any of various usually liquid substances which can react chemically with and sometimes dissolve other materials: acetic/ hydrochloric/lactic acid 앩 Vinegar is an acid. acid /s.d/ adj 1 containing acid, or having similar qualities to an acid: an acid taste/smell 앩 acid soil 2 describes a remark or way of speaking that is cruel or criticizes something in an unkind way: her acid wit 앩 When she spoke her tone was acid. acidify /əsd..fa/ US /ə.ti/ noun [U] High verb [I or T] acidity /əsd..ti/  acidity levels in the water mean that the fish are not so large. acidly /s. adv: "I suppose you expect me to thank you for coming," he said acidly (= unpleasantly). acid DRUG /s.d/ noun [U] SLANG FOR LSD (= an illegal drug which makes people see things that do not exist) acid jazz noun [U] a style of popular dance music which is a mix of FUNK, SOUL and jazz US /.s.dɑ.fə.ləs/ noun [U] acidophilus /.s.dɒf..ləs/  SPECIALIZED a type of BACTERIUM (= a very small organism) used to make YOGURT or as a medicine to help people digest food if they have a stomach illness acid rain noun [U] rain which contains large amounts of harmful chemicals as a result of burning substances such as coal and oil the acid test noun [S] the true test of the value of something: It looks good, but will people buy it? That’s the acid test. US acknowledge /əknɒl.d /  /nɑ.ld / verb [T] to accept, admit or recognize something, or the truth or existence of something: [+ v-ing ] She acknowledged having been at fault. 앩 [+ that ] She acknowledged that she had been at fault. 앩 You must acknowledge the truth of her argument. 앩 Historians generally acknowledge her as a genius in her field. 앩 [+ obj + to infinitive] She is usually acknowledged to be one of our best artists. 앩 They refused to acknowledge (= to recognize officially) the new government. 앩 Please acknowledge receipt of (= say that you have received) this letter. 앩 He didn’t even acknowledge my presence (= show that he had seen me). 앩 The government won’t even acknowledge the existence of the problem. acknowledgment, acknowledgement /əknɒl.d . US /nɑ.ld / noun [C or U] We sent her a copy of the mənt/  book in acknowledgment of her part in its creation. 앩 I applied for four jobs, but I’ve only had one acknowledgment (= letter saying that my letter has been received) so far. acknowledgments, acknowledgements /ək US /nɑ.ld / plural noun a short text at nɒl.d .mənts/  the beginning or end of a book where the writer names people or other works that have helped in writing the book the acme /ðik.mi/ noun [S] LITERARY the highest point of perfection or achievement: To act on this worldfamous stage is surely the acme of any actor’s career. acne / noun [U] a skin disease common in young people, in which small red spots appear on the face and neck: Acne is the curse of adolescence. acolyte /k.əl.at/ noun [C] FORMAL OR SPECIALIZED any follower or helper, or someone who helps a priest in some religious ceremonies US /kɔrn/ noun [C] an oval nut that grows acorn /e.kɔn/  on an OAK tree and has a cup-like outer part acoustic /ək/ adj 1 relating to sound or hearing: The microphone converts acoustic waves to electrical signals for transmission. 2 describes a musical instru-




ment that is not made louder by electrical equipment: an acoustic guitar acoustic /ək/ noun [C usually pl] the way in which the structural characteristics of a building or room affect the qualities of musical or spoken sound: The concert was recorded in a French church that is famous for its acoustics. acoustically /ə.kli/ adv acoustics /əks/ noun [U] SPECIALIZED the scientific study of sound acquaint /əkwent/ verb 쑿 acquaint sb with sth phrasal verb FORMAL to make someone or yourself aware of something: [R] Take time to acquaint yourself with the rules. 앩 The Broadcasting Museum also offers Saturday workshops to acquaint children with the world of radio. acquaintance /əkwen.tənts/ noun 1 [C] a person that you have met but do not know well: a business acquaintance 2 [U] FORMAL used in some expressions about knowing or meeting people: It was at the Taylors’ party that I first made his acquaintance (= first met him). 앩 I wasn’t sure about Darryl when I first met her, but on further acquaintance (= knowing her a little more) I rather like her. 3 [U] FORMAL knowledge of a subject: Sadly, my acquaintance with Spanish literature is rather limited. 쐌 have a passing/slight/nodding acquaintance with sth FORMAL to have very little knowledge or experience of a subject: I’m afraid I have only a nodding acquaintance with his works. acquaintanceship /əkwen.tənt.ʃp/ noun [C or U] FORMAL Ours was a strictly professional acquaintanceship (= relationship). US acquainted /əkwen.td/  /td/ adj [after v] FORMAL knowing or being familiar with a person: "Do you know Daphne?" "No, I’m afraid we’re not acquainted." 앩 I am not personally acquainted with the gentleman in question. US acquainted /əkwen.td/  /td/ adj FORMAL be acquainted with sth to know or be familiar with something, because you have studied it or have experienced it before: Police said the thieves were obviously well acquainted with the alarm system at the department store. acquiesce /k.wies/ verb [I] FORMAL to accept or agree to something, often unwillingly: Reluctantly, he acquiesced to/in the plans. acquiescent /k.wies.ənt/ adj: FORMAL She has a very acquiescent nature (= agrees to everything without complaining). acquiescence /k.wies.ənts/ noun [U] I was surprised by her acquiescence to/in the scheme. US /kwa/ verb [T] to obtain someacquire /əkwaər/  thing: He acquired the firm in 1978. 앩 I was wearing a newly/recently acquired jacket. 앩 I seem to have acquired (= obtained although I don’t know how) two copies of this book. 앩 During this period he acquired a reputation for being a womanizer. 쐌 an acquired taste something that you dislike at first, but that you start to like after you have tried it a few times: Olives are an acquired taste. US acquirer /əkwa.rər/  /r/ noun [C] MAINLY US a company that buys other companies, usually to sell them for a profit: A business with so much growth is sure to generate interest among potential acquirers. acquisition /k.wzʃ.ən/ noun [C or U] The museum has been heavily criticized over its acquisition of the fourmillion-dollar sculpture. 앩 I like your earrings – are they a recent acquisition (= did you get them recently)? US /ə.t acquisitive /əkwz..tv/  v/ adj FORMAL MAINLY DISAPPROVING eager to possess and collect things: We live in an acquisitive society which views success primarily in terms of material possessions.


DECIDE NOT GUILTY /əkwt/ verb [T often passive] -tt- to decide officially in a court of law that someone is not guilty of a particular crime: She was acquitted of all the charges against her. 앩 Five months ago he was acquitted on a shoplifting charge. 7Compare convict. acquittal US /kwt /əkwt.əl/  / noun [C or U] The first trial ended in a hung jury, the second in acquittal. 앩 Of the three cases that went to trial, two ended in acquittals.

acquit yourself

PERFORM verb [R] FORMAL to do better than expected in a difficult situation: I thought that he acquitted himself admirably in today’s meeting. US /k/ noun [C] a unit for measuring area, acre /e.kər/  equal to 4047 square metres or 4840 square yards: He’s got 400 acres of land in Wales. US /k/ noun [U] What acreage is acreage /e.kər.d /  her estate (= How big is it, measured in acres)? acrid /k.rd/ adj describes a smell or taste that is strong and bitter and causes a burning feeling in the throat: Clouds of acrid smoke issued from the building. US /moυ/ adj FORMAL acrimonious /k.rməυ.ni.əs/  full of anger, arguments and bad feeling: an acrimonious dispute 앩 Their marriage ended eight years ago in an acrimonious divorce. acrimoniously /k.rməυ.ni.ə. US /moυ/ adv: In 1967, he separated acrimoniously sli/  from his wife. acrimony /k.r.mə.ni/ noun [U] The acrimony of the dispute has shocked a lot of people. acrobat /k.rə.bt/ noun [C] a person who entertains people by doing difficult and skilful physical things, such as walking along a high wire US /bt acrobatic /k.rəbt.k/  / adj: an acrobatic (= skilled and graceful) leap into the air 앩 an acrobatic US /bt/ young dancer acrobatics /k.rəbt.ks/  noun [U] He had spent the last ten years in a Peking Opera school, studying martial arts and acrobatics. US /rə/ noun [C] an abbreviation acronym /k.rəυ.nm/  consisting of the first letters of each word in the name of something, pronounced as a word: AIDS is an acronym for ‘Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome’. US /krɑs/ adv, prep from one side to the across /əkrɒs/  other of something with clear limits, such as an area of land, a road or river: She walked across the field/road. 앩 They’re building a new bridge across the river. US /krɑs/ prep 1 on the opposite side of: across /əkrɒs/  The library is just across the road. 2 in every part of a particular place or country: Voting took place peacefully across most of the country. 쐌 across country travelling in a direction where roads or public transport do not go, or where main roads or railways do not go: Getting a train across country from Cambridge to Chester can be difficult. 쐌 across the board happening or having an effect on people at every level and in every area: The improvement has been across the board, with all divisions either increasing profits or reducing losses. 앩 The initiative has across-the-board support. US /krɑ.stk/ noun [C] SPECIALIZED a acrostic /əkrɒs.tk/  text, usually a poem, in which particular letters, such as the first letters of each line, spell a word or phrase acrylic /əkrl.k/ adj made of a substance or cloth produced by chemical processes from a type of acid: an acrylic scarf/sweater 앩 acrylic paint acrylic /əkrl.k/ noun 1 [U] a type of cloth or plastic produced by chemical processes 2 [C usually pl] a type of paint act DO SOMETHING /kt/ verb [I] to do something for a particular purpose, or to behave in the stated way: [+ to infinitive] Engineers acted quickly to repair the damaged pipes. 앩 She acted without thinking. 앩 The anaesthetic acted (= had an effect) quickly. 앩 Who is acting for/on behalf of (= who is representing) the defendant? 앩 He acted as if he’d never met me before. 앩 Don’t be so silly – you’re acting like a child! 앩 He never acts on other people’s advice (= does what other people suggest). 앩 Acting on impulse (= without thinking first) can get you into a lot of trouble. act /kt/ noun [C] an act of aggression/bravery/madness/terrorism 앩 a kind/ thoughtless/selfish act 앩 The sexual act itself meant little to her. 앩 The simple act of telling someone about a problem can help. 앩 Primitive people regarded storms as an act of God. acting /k.tŋ/ adj acting chairman/manager, etc. someone who does a job for a short time while the person who usually does that job is not there: He’ll be the acting director until they can appoint a permanent one. 7See also acting at act PERFORM. act PERFORM /kt/ verb [I or T] to play a part; to perform in a film, play, etc: Ellis Pike was chosen to act the part of






the lawyer in the film. 앩 Have you ever acted in a play before? 쐌 act the fool/martyr, etc. to behave in a particular, usually bad, way: Why are you always acting the fool? act /kt/ noun 1 [S] behaviour which hides your real feelings or intentions: Was she really upset or was that just an act? 2 [C] a person or group that performs a short piece in a show, or the piece that they perform: a comedy/juggling/trapeze act 앩 Our next act is a very talented young musician. 3 [C] a part of a play or opera: Shakespeare’s plays were written in five acts. 앩 The hero does not enter until the second act/Act Two. 쐌 do a disappearing/vanishing act to go away, usually because you do not want to do something or meet someone: Tim always does a vanishing act when my mother comes to stay. 쐌 get/muscle in on the act INFORMAL to take advantage of something that someone else started: We did all the hard work of setting up the company, and now everyone wants to get in on the act. 쐌 get your act together INFORMAL to start to organize yourself so that you do things in an effective way: She’s so disorganized – I wish she’d get her act together. 쐌 be a hard/tough act to follow INFORMAL to be so good it is not likely that anyone or anything that comes after will be as good: His presidency was very successful – it’ll be a hard act to follow. 쐌 put on an act INFORMAL to behave or speak in a false or artificial way: He’s just putting on an act for the boss’s benefit. acting /k.tŋ/ noun [U] the job of performing in films or plays: He wants to get into acting. 7See also acting at act DO SOMETHING. US actor /k.tər/  /t/ noun [C] (FEMALE ALSO actress) someone who pretends to be someone else while performing in a film, theatrical performance, or television or radio programme: "Who’s your favourite actor?" "Robert de Niro." 앩 She’s the highest-paid actress in Hollywood. act LAW /kt/ noun [C] LEGAL a law or formal decision made by a parliament or other group of elected lawmakers: an act of parliament 앩 the Betting and Gaming Act 앩 Almost two hundred suspects were detained in Britain last year under the Prevention of Terrorism Act. 앩 The state legislature passed an act banning the sale of automatic weapons. P H R A S A L V E R B S W I T H act 쑿

act as sth

phrasal verb to do a particular job, especially one that you do not normally do: He was asked to act as an advisor on the project. 쑿 act as sth EFFECT phrasal verb to have a particular effect: Some people say that capital punishment acts as a deterrent. 쑿 act sth out PERFORM phrasal verb [M] to perform the actions and say the words of a situation or story: The children acted out their favourite poem. 쑿 act sth out EXPRESS phrasal verb [M] to express your thoughts, emotions or ideas in your actions: Children’s negative feelings often get acted out in bad behaviour. 쑿 act up BEHAVE BADLY phrasal verb If a person, especially a child, acts up, they behave badly: Sophie got bored and started acting up. 쑿 act up NOT PERFORM phrasal verb INFORMAL If a machine or part of the body acts up, it does not perform as well as it should: My car always acts up in cold weather. 앩 Her shoulder was acting up (= hurting because of injury). JOB

DOING SOMETHING /k.ʃən/ noun [U] the process of doing something, especially when dealing with a problem or difficulty: This problem calls for swift/ prompt action from the government. 앩 [+ to infinitive] Action to prevent the spread of the disease is high on the government’s agenda. 앩 We must take action (= do something) to deal with the problem before it spreads to other areas. 앩 So what’s the plan of action (= What are we going to do)? 앩 The complaints system swings into action (= starts to work) as soon as a claim is made. 앩 The committee was spurred into action (= encouraged to do something) by the threat of government cuts.


쐌 be out of action If a machine or vehicle is out of action, it is not working or cannot be used: I’m afraid the TV’s out of action. 쐌 out of action If an athlete is out of action, they are injured or ill and cannot compete: Jackson’s torn ligaments will keep him out of action for the rest of the season. action SOMETHING DONE /k.ʃən/ noun [C] 1 something that you do: She has to accept the consequences of her actions. 앩 I asked him to explain his actions. 2 a physical movement: I’ll say the words and you can mime the actions. 앩 It only needs a small wrist action (= movement of the wrist) to start the process. 쐌 Actions speak louder than words. SAYING said to emphasize that what you do is more important and shows your intentions and feelings more clearly than what you say action ACTIVITY /k.ʃən/ noun [U] things which are happening, especially exciting or important things: I like films with a lot of action. 앩 In her last novel, the action (= the main events) moves between Greece and southern Spain. 쐌 a man of action a man who prefers to do things rather than think about and discuss them 쐌 a piece/slice of the action INFORMAL involvement in something successful that someone else has started: Now research has proved that the drug is effective everyone wants a slice of the action. 쐌 where the action is at the place where something important or interesting is happening: A journalist has to be where the action is. action WAR /k.ʃən/ noun [U] fighting in a war: Her younger son was killed in action. 앩 He was reported missing in action. 앩 He saw action (= fought as a soldier) in the trenches. action MOVEMENT /k.ʃən/ noun [C or U] the way something moves or works: We studied the action of the digestive system. 앩 The car has a very smooth braking action. action EFFECT /k.ʃən/ noun [S] the effect something has on another thing: They recorded the action of the drug on the nervous system. action LEGAL PROCESS /k.ʃən/ noun [C or U] a legal process that is decided in a court of law: a libel action 앩 She brought an action (for negligence) against the hospital. 앩 A criminal action was brought against him. 앩 The book was halted in South Africa by a threat of legal action. actionable /k.ʃən.ə.bl/ adj SPECIALIZED If something is actionable, it gives someone a good reason for making an accusation in a law court: She denies that her company has been involved in any actionable activity. action DEAL WITH /k.ʃən/ verb [T usually passive] to do something to deal with a particular problem or matter: I’ll just run through the minutes of the last meeting, raising those points which still have to be actioned. action-packed /k.ʃənpkt/ adj full of exciting events: an action-packed thriller/weekend/finale action replay UK noun [C] (US instant replay) a repeat of an important moment from a sports event shown on television, often more slowly to show the action in detail: They showed an action replay of the goal. action stations plural noun UK INFORMAL 1 when you are as ready as possible to perform a task you have been preparing for: The whole school was at action stations for the inspectors’ visit. 2 action stations! used to tell people to get ready immediately to do the particular jobs which they have been given to do: Right, everyone – action stations! We’re starting the show in 3 minutes. US /t activate /k.t.vet/  / verb [T] 1 to cause something to start: The alarm is activated by the lightest pressure. 2 SPECIALIZED to make a chemical reaction happen more quickly, especially by heating activation US /t /k.tve.ʃən/  / noun [U] active BUSY/INVOLVED /k.tv/ adj 1 busy with or ready to perform a particular activity: physically and mentally active 앩 You’ve got to try to keep active as you grow older. 앩 Enemy forces remain active in the mountainous areas around the city. 앩 She’s very active in (= involved in)




local politics. 앩 Both of his parents were very politically active. 앩 It is important to educate children before they become sexually active. 앩 He takes a more active role in the team nowadays. 앩 She’s an active member of her trade union (= not only belongs to it, but does work to help it). 2 describes a volcano that might ERUPT (= throw out hot liquid rock or other matter) at any time actively /k.t adv: He’s very actively involved in (= does a lot of work for) the local Labour Party. 앩 It’s nice having a man who actively encourages me to spend money. 앩 I’ve been actively looking for a job (= trying hard to find one) for six months. active GRAMMAR /k.tv/ adj An active verb or sentence is one in which the subject is the person or thing which performs the stated action: ‘Catrin told me’ is an active sentence, and ‘I was told by Catrin’ is passive. 7Compare the passive GRAMMAR. activism /k.t.v.zəm/ noun [U] the use of direct and noticeable action to achieve a result, usually a political or social one: black/student activism 앩 The levels of trade union and political activism in this country have greatly declined in the past fifteen years. activist /k.t.vst/ noun [C] a person who believes strongly in political or social change and works hard to try and make this happen: He’s been a trade union/party activist for many years. 앩 a gay activist US /ə.t activity MOVEMENT /ktv..ti/  i/ noun [U] when a lot of things are happening or people are moving around: There was a lot of activity in preparation for the Queen’s visit. 앩 Ministers are concerned by the low level of economic activity. 앩 There was a sudden flurry of activity when the director walked in. US /ə.t activity WORK /ktv..ti/  i/ noun [C or U] the work of a group or organization to achieve an aim: He was found guilty of terrorist activity. 앩 criminal activities US /ə.t activity ENJOYMENT /ktv..ti/  i/ noun [C usually pl] something that is done for enjoyment, especially an organized event: His spare-time activities include cooking, tennis and windsurfing. 앩 We offer our guests a wide range of outdoor/sporting activities. actor noun [C] (ALSO actress) 7See at act PERFORM. actual /k.tʃu.əl/ /tju/ /tʃυl/ adj [before n] real; existing in fact: We had estimated about 300 visitors, but the actual number was much higher. 앩 The exams are in July, but the actual results (= the results themselves) don’t appear until September. 쐌 in actual fact really: I thought she was Portuguese, but in actual fact she’s Brazilian. US /ə.t actuality /k.tʃul.ə.ti/ /tju/  i/ noun [C usually pl] FORMAL a fact: He’s out of touch with the actualities of life in Africa. 쐌 in actuality FORMAL really: In actuality, there were few job losses last year. COMMON LEARNER ERROR

actual or current ? Use actual when you mean ‘real’.

His friends call him Jo-Jo, but his actual name is John. Use current to talk about things which are happening or which exist now.

She started her current job two years ago. the current economic situation the actual economic situation


IN FACT /k.tʃu.ə.li/ /tju/ /tʃυ.li/ adv in fact or really: I didn’t actually see her – I just heard her voice. 앩 So what actually happened? actually SURPRISE /k.tʃu.ə.li/ /tju/ /tʃυ.li/ adv used in sentences in which there is information that is in some way surprising or the opposite of what most people would expect: I didn’t like him at first, but in the end I actually got quite fond of him. 앩 I’m one of the few people who doesn’t actually like champagne. 앩 HUMOROUS Don’t tell me he actually paid for you! You are honoured! actually OPPOSITE /k.tʃu.ə.li/ /tju/ /tʃυ.li/ adv used as a way of making a sentence slightly more polite, for example when you are expressing an opposing opinion, correcting what someone else has said or refusing an

offer: "Alexander looks like he’d be good at sports." "Actually, he’s not." 앩 Actually, Gavin, it was Tuesday of last week, not Wednesday. 앩 "Do you mind if I smoke?" "Well, actually, I’d rather you didn’t." US actuary /k.tju.ə.ri/  /er.i/ noun [C] a person who calculates the probability of accidents, such as fire, flood or loss of property, and informs insurance companies how much they should charge their customers actuate /k.tʃu.et/ /tju/ verb [T] SPECIALIZED OR FORMAL to make a machine work or be the reason a person acts in a certain way: A detonator is any device containing an explosive that is actuated by heat, percussion, friction, or electricity. 앩 He was actuated almost entirely by altruism. US /ə.t acuity /əkju.ə.ti/  i/ noun [U] FORMAL the ability to hear, see or think accurately and clearly: Tiredness also affects visual acuity. 앩 He was a man of great political acuity. /k k/ INTERNET ABBREVIATION FOR the last part of an Internet address that belongs to a British university or college acumen /k.jυ.mən/ noun [U] FORMAL skill in making correct decisions and judgments in a particular subject, such as business or politics: She has considerable business/financial acumen. US /tʃ/ noun [U] a treatacupuncture /k.jυ.p ŋk.tʃər/  ment for pain and illness in which thin needles are positioned just under the surface of the skin at special nerve centres around the body: Acupuncture originated in China. acute EXTREME /əkjut/ adj 1 If a bad situation is acute, it causes severe problems or damage: She felt acute embarrassment/anxiety/concern at his behaviour. 앩 The problem of poverty is particularly acute in rural areas. 2 An acute pain or illness is one that quickly becomes very severe: acute abdominal pains 앩 an acute attack of appendicitis acutely /ə adv completely or extremely: Management is acutely aware of the resentment that their decision may cause. 앩 Another scandal would be acutely embarrassing for the government. acuteness /əkjut.nəs/ noun [U] acute ACCURATE/CLEVER /əkjut/ adj (of the senses, intelligence, etc.) very good, accurate and able to notice very small differences: acute eyesight/hearing 앩 an acute sense of smell 앩 a woman of acute intelligence/judgement acutely /ə adv acuteness /əkjut.nəs/ noun [U] acute ANGLE /əkjut/ adj describes an angle that is less than 90 degrees 7Compare obtuse ANGLE. acute (accent) noun [C] a sign which is written above a letter in some languages, showing you how to pronounce the letter: There’s an acute accent on the e in ble´ which is the French word for corn. ad /d/ noun [C] INFORMAL FOR advertisement, see at advertise: I often prefer the ads on TV to the actual programmes. AD, US USUALLY A.D. /edi/ adv ABBREVIATION FOR Anno Domini: used in the Christian CALENDAR when referring to a year after Jesus Christ was born: in 1215 AD/AD 1215 앩 during the seventh century AD 7Compare BC. adage /d.d / noun [C] a wise saying; PROVERB: He remembered the old adage ‘Look before you leap’. ad agency noun [C] a company that produces advertisements Adam /d.əm/ noun a character in the Bible who was the first man made by God adamant /d.ə.mənt/ adj impossible to persuade, or unwilling to change an opinion or decision: [+ that ] I’ve told her she should stay at home and rest but she’s adamant that she’s coming. adamantly /d.ə.mə adv: The mayor is adamantly opposed to any tax increase. Adam’s apple /d.əmzp.l/ noun [C] the part of your throat that sticks out and tends to move up and down when you speak or swallow adapt CHANGE /ədpt/ verb [T] to change something to suit different conditions or uses: Many software companies have adapted popular programs to the new operating system. 앩 The recipe here is a pork roast






adapted from Caroline O’Neill’s book ‘Louisiana Kitchen’. 앩 [+ to infinitive] We had to adapt our plans to fit Jack’s timetable. 앩 The play had been adapted for (= changed to make it suitable for) children. 앩 Davies is busy adapting Brinkworth’s latest novel for television. adapted /ədp.td/ adj: Both trees are well adapted to London’s dry climate and dirty air. adaptable /ədp.tə.bl/ adj able or willing to change in order to suit different conditions: The survivors in this life seem to be those who are adaptable to change. US /ə.t adaptability /ədp.təbl..ti/  i/ noun [U] Adaptability is a necessary quality in an ever-changing work environment. adaptation /d.əpte.ʃən/ noun [C or U] Evolution occurs as a result of adaptation (= the process of changing) to new environments. 앩 Last year he starred in the film adaptation of Bill Cronshaw’s best-selling novel. adaptive /ədp.tv/ adj SPECIALIZED possessing an ability to change to suit different conditions adapt BECOME FAMILIAR /ədpt/ verb [I] to become familiar with a new situation: The good thing about children is that they adapt very easily to new environments. 앩 It took me a while to adapt to the new job. US /t/ noun [C] 1 adapter DEVICE , adaptor /ədp.tər/  MAINLY UK a type of plug ELECTRICAL DEVICE which makes it possible to connect two or more pieces of equipment to the same electrical supply 2 a device which is used to connect two pieces of equipment US /t/ noun [C] a adapter WRITER , adaptor /ədp.tər/  person who makes slight changes to a book, play or other piece of text so that it can be performed ADC /e.disi/ noun [C] ABBREVIATION FOR aide-de-camp add /d/ verb [I or T] to put something with something else to increase the number or amount or to improve the whole: If you add (= calculate the total of) three and four you get seven. 앩 Beat the butter and sugar together and slowly add the eggs. 앩 She’s added a Picasso to her collection. 앩 Her colleagues’ laughter only added to (= increased) her embarrassment. 앩 [+ that ] She was sad, she said, but added (= said also) that she felt she had made the right decision. 앩 [+ speech] "Oh, and thank you for all your help!" he added as he was leaving. 앩 It’s $45 – $50 if you add in (= include) the cost of postage. 앩 Don’t forget to add on your travelling expenses/add your expenses on. 쐌 to add insult to injury said when you feel that someone has made a bad situation worse by doing something else to upset you: They told me I was too old for the job, and then to add insult to injury, they refused to pay my expenses! added /d.d/ adj extra: He had the added disadvantage of being the only man present. 앩 She lost her job last week, and now added to that she’s pregnant again. addition /ədʃ.ən/ noun [C or U] Twice a week the children are tested in basic mathematical skills such as addition (= calculating the total of different numbers put together) and subtraction. 앩 Most working environments are improved by the addition of (= adding) a few plants and pictures. 앩 A secretary would be a welcome/useful addition to our staff. 앩 In addition to his flat in London, he has a villa in Italy and a castle in Scotland. 앩 HUMOROUS I hear you’re expecting a small addition to the family (= you are going to have a baby)! additional /ədʃ.ən.əl/ adj extra: additional costs/ problems 앩 There will be an extra charge for any additional passengers. additionally /ədʃ.ən.əl.i/ adv: Additionally (= also), we request a deposit of $200 in advance. P H R A S A L V E R B S W I T H add 쑿

add (sth) up phrasal verb [M] to calculate the total of

two or more numbers: If you add those four figures up, it comes to over £500. 앩 She added the bill up. 앩 I’m not very good at adding up! 쐌 not add up INFORMAL If a situation does not add up, there is no reasonable or likely explanation for it: Why would she disappear the day before her holiday? It just doesn’t add up. 쑿 add up to sth AMOUNT phrasal verb to become a particular amount: The various building programmes add up to several thousand new homes. 앩 We thought

we’d bought lots of food, but it didn’t add up to much when we’d spread it out on the table. 쑿 add up to sth RESULT phrasal verb to have a particular result or effect: It all added up to a lot of hard work for all of us. 앩 Their proposals do not add up to any real help for the poor.

ADD /e.didi/ US ABBREVIATION FOR Attention Deficit Disorder: a condition in which someone, especially a child, is often in a state of activity or excitement and unable direct their attention towards what they are doing addendum /əden.dəm/ noun [C] plural addenda SPECIALIZED something that has been added to a book, speech or document US adder /d.ər/  // noun [C] a type of poisonous snake addict /d.kt/ noun [C] a person who cannot stop doing or using something, especially something harmful: a drug/heroin addict 앩 a gambling addict 앩 HUMOROUS I’m a chocolate/shopping addict. addicted /ədk.td/ adj: By the age of 14 he was addicted to heroin. 앩 I’m addicted to (= I very often eat/drink) chocolate/lattes. 앩 I know that if I start watching a soap opera I immediately become hopelessly addicted. addiction /ədk.ʃən/ noun [C or U] drug addiction 앩 his addiction to alcohol addictive /ədk.tv/ adj 1 An addictive drug is one which you cannot stop taking once you have started: Tobacco is highly addictive. 2 describes an activity or food that you cannot stop doing or eating once you have started: The problem with video games is that they’re addictive. 앩 These nuts are addictive – I can’t stop eating them. 3 addictive personality a set of characteristics which mean that you very quickly become addicted to drugs, food, alcohol, etc: He’s got an addictive personality. US /ə.t additive /d..tv/  v/ noun [C] a substance which is added to food in order to improve its taste or appearance or to preserve it: food additives 앩 This margarine is full of additives – just look at the label! addle /d.l/ verb [T] MAINLY HUMOROUS to make someone feel confused and unable to think clearly: I think my brain’s been addled by the heat! addled /d.ld/ adj: MAINLY HUMOROUS I’m afraid my sunaddled (= confused) brain couldn’t make any sense of the instructions. US /ɑn/ noun [C] 1 a piece of equipment add-on /d.ɒn/  which can be connected to a computer to give it an extra use: A modem is a useful add-on. 2 an extra part which is added, especially to an officially organized plan, system, agreement, etc: Legal expenses cover is often sold as an add-on to household insurance policies. US /d.res/ noun [C] 1 the address HOME DETAILS /ədres/  number of the house and name of the road and town where a person lives or works and where letters can be sent: her business/home address 앩 a change of address 앩 I’ll just look her phone number up in my address book. 2 SPECIALIZED the place where a piece of information is stored in a computer’s memory address /ədres/ verb [T] to write a name or address on an envelope or parcel: The parcel was wrongly addressed. 앩 So why did you open a letter that was addressed to me? addressee /d.resi/ noun [C] a person whose name or address is written on a letter or parcel address SPEAK TO /ədres/ verb [T] FORMAL to speak or write to someone: He addressed a few introductory remarks to the audience. 앩 He likes to be addressed as ‘Sir’ or ‘Mr Partridge’. US /d.res/ noun [C] a formal speech: address /ədres/  She gave an address to the Royal Academy. address DEAL WITH /ədres/ verb [T] to give attention to or deal with a matter or problem: The issue of funding has yet to be addressed. US /dus/ verb [T often passive] FORMAL to adduce /ədjus/  give reasons why you think something is true: None of the evidence adduced in court was conclusive. adenoids /d.ən.ɔdz/ plural noun the soft mass of flesh between the back of the nose and the throat, which




sometimes makes breathing difficult adenoidal /d.ənɔ.dəl/ adj adept /ədept/ adj having a natural ability to do something that needs skill: She’s very adept at dealing with the media. 앩 Tamsin Palmer gave an impressive and technically adept performance on the piano. adeptly /ə adv adequate /d.ə.kwət/ adj enough or satisfactory for a particular purpose: Have we got adequate food for twenty guests? 앩 I didn’t have adequate time to prepare. 앩 It’s not by any means a brilliant salary but it’s adequate for our needs. 앩 The council’s provision for the elderly is barely adequate (= is not enough). 앩 [+ to infinitive] Will future oil supplies be adequate to meet world needs? ✻ NOTE: The opposite is inadequate. adequately /d.ə.kwə adv: While some patients can be adequately cared for at home, others are best served by care in a hospital. adequacy /d.ə.kwə.si/ noun [U] The adequacy of public health care has been brought into question. ADHD /e.di.etʃdi/ noun [U] MAINLY UK ABBREVIATION FOR attention deficit hyperactivity disorder US /hr/ verb [I] FORMAL to stick firmly: A adhere /ədhər/  smooth, dry surface helps the tiles adhere to the wall. US /hr.ənt/ adj FORMAL sticky: an adherent /ədhə.rənt/  adherent surface adhesion /ədhi. ən/ noun [U] the ability to stick: At this stage a resin is used with a high level of adhesion. 쑿 adhere to sth phrasal verb FORMAL to continue to obey a rule or maintain a belief: She adhered to her principles/ideals throughout her life. 앩 They failed to adhere to the terms of the agreement/treaty. 앩 The translator has obviously adhered very strictly to the original text. US adherence /ədhə.rənts/  /hr.ənts/ noun [U] He was noted for his strict adherence to the rules. US adherent /ədhə.rənt/  /hr.ənt/ noun [C] FORMAL a person who strongly supports a particular person, principle or set of ideas: She has long been an adherent of the Communist Party. adhesive /ədhi.sv/ noun [C or U] glue: You’ll need a/ some strong adhesive to mend that chair. adhesive /ədhi.sv/ adj sticky: adhesive tape/paper US /hɑk/ adj [before n] made or happenad hoc /dhɒk/  ing only for a particular purpose or need, not planned in advance: an ad hoc committee/meeting 앩 We deal with problems on an ad hoc basis (= as they happen). US /du/ exclamation LITERARY OR OLD adieu /ədju/ /djυ/  USE goodbye: She bade (= said to) him adieu and left. US /t ad infinitum /d.n.fna.təm/  əm/ adv forever, without ending: "Why was she such a lousy boss?" "Oh, because she was unreasonable, disrespectful, rude, inconsiderate – I could go on ad infinitum." US /oυs/ exclamation MAINLY US INFORMAL adios /d.iɒs/  goodbye US adipose /d..pəυs/ /pəυz/  /ə.poυs/ adj [before n] SPECIALIZED of animal fat: adipose tissue (= fat) adj noun ABBREVIATION FOR adjective adjacent /əd e.sənt/ adj FORMAL very near, next to, or touching: They work in adjacent buildings. 앩 They lived in a house adjacent to the railway. adjective /d .ek.tv/ noun [C] a word that describes a noun or pronoun: ‘Big’, ‘boring’, ‘purple’, ‘quick’ and ‘obvious’ are all adjectives. adjectival /d .ekta.vəl/ adj: an adjectival phrase adjectivally /d .ekta.vəl.i/ adv: In ‘kitchen table’, the noun ‘kitchen’ is used adjectivally. adjoin /əd ɔn/ verb [I or T] FORMAL to be very near, next to, or touching: The stables adjoin the west wing of the house. 앩 It’s at this point that these three neighbourhoods adjoin. adjoining /əd ɔ.nŋ/ adj: [before n] We asked for adjoining rooms (= rooms next to each other). US /d n/ verb [I or T] FORMAL to have a adjourn /əd n/  pause or rest during a formal meeting or trial: The meeting was adjourned until Tuesday. 앩 Shall we adjourn US /d n/ for lunch? adjournment /əd n.mənt/  noun [C or U] The defence attorney requested an adjournment. 앩 The court’s adjournment means that a decision will not be reached until December at the earliest.

쑿 adjourn to somewhere phrasal verb HUMOROUS to finish doing something and go somewhere, usually for a drink and some food: Shall we adjourn to the sitting room for coffee? adjudge /əd d / verb [T often passive] FORMAL to announce a decision or consider something, especially officially: [+ to infinitive] Half an hour into the game Paterson was adjudged to have fouled Jackson and was sent off. 앩 [+ n or adj] In October 1990, Mirchandani was adjudged bankrupt. 앩 Fairbanks was adjudged the winner, a decision which has outraged a good few members of the boxing fraternity. adjudicate /əd u.d.ket/ verb [I or T] to act as judge in a competition or argument, or to make a formal decision about something: He was asked to adjudicate on the dispute. 앩 He was called in to adjudicate a local land dispute. 앩 [+ two objects] The game was adjudicated a win for Black. adjudication /əd u.dke.ʃən/ noun [C or U] The legality of the transaction is still under adjudication (= being decided) in the courts. 앩 His adjudication was later found US /t / noun to be faulty. adjudicator /əd u.d.ke.tər/  [C] She acted as adjudicator in the dispute. adjunct /d . ŋkt/ noun [C] FORMAL something added or connected to a larger or more important thing: I hoped I would find the computer course a useful adjunct to my other studies. 앩 In grammar, an adjunct is an adverb or adverbial phrase that gives extra information in a sentence. US /d υr/ verb [T + to infinitive] FORMAL to adjure /əd υər/  ask or order someone to do something: The judge adjured him to answer truthfully. adjust CHANGE /əd st.mənt/ verb [T] 1 to change something slightly, especially to make it more correct, effective, or suitable: If the chair is too high you can adjust it to suit you. 앩 As a teacher you have to adjust your methods to suit the needs of slower children. 2 to arrange your clothing to make yourself look tidy: She adjusted her skirt, took a deep breath and walked into the room. adjustable /əd s.tə.bl/ adj able to be changed to suit particular needs: The height of the steering wheel is adjustable. 앩 Is the strap on this helmet adjustable? adjustment /əd st.mənt/ noun [C or U] a small change: She made a few minor adjustments to the focus of her camera. adjust BECOME FAMILIAR /əd st.mənt/ verb [I] to become more familiar with a new situation: I can’t adjust to living on my own. 앩 Her eyes slowly adjusted to the dark. 앩 The lifestyle is so very different – it takes a while to adjust. adjustment /əd st.mənt/ noun [C or U] the ability to become more familiar with a new situation: He has so far failed to make the adjustment from school to work. adjutant /d .υ.tənt/ noun [C] a military officer who does office work and who is responsible for rules and punishment among the lower ranks ad lib adj [before n], adv said without any preparation or thought in advance: I’d forgotten the notes for my speech so I had to do it ad lib. 앩 ad-lib comments ad-lib /dlb/ verb [I or T] to speak in public without having planned what to say: She ad-libbed her way through the entire speech. adman / noun [C] a man who works in advertising US /st/ verb [T often administer MANAGE /ədmn..stər/  passive] to control the operation or arrangement of something; to manage or govern: The country was administered by the British until very recently. 앩 The economy has been badly administered by the present government. administration /ədmn.stre.ʃən/ noun 1 [U] (INFORMAL admin) the arrangements and tasks needed to control the operation of a plan or organization: Teachers complain that more of their time is taken up with administration than with teaching. 앩 She has little experience in administration (= in organizing a business, etc.). 2 [C] a period of government in the United States: the Bush administration/the last Republican administration US /t administrative /ədmn..strə.tv/  v/ adj relating to the arrangements and work which is needed to con-






trol the operation of a plan or organization: administrative work 앩 an administrative problem 앩 Your responsibilities will be mainly administrative. adminUS /tv/ adv administratively /ədmn.s.trə.t  US /t / noun [C] From 1969 to istrator /ədmn..stre.tər/  1971, he was administrator of the Illinois state drug abuse program. 앩 She works as a school administrator. US /st/ verb [T] FORMAL administer GIVE /ədmn..stər/  1 to cause someone to receive something: to administer medicine/punishment/relief 앩 Tests will be administered to schoolchildren at seven, twelve and sixteen years. 앩 FIGURATIVE The latest opinion polls have administered a severe blow to the party. 2 administer an oath to sb to be present while someone says an OATH (= formal promise) officially admiral /d.m.rəl/ noun [C] an officer of very high rank in the navy: Admiral Nelson US /t the Admiralty /ðid.m.rəl.ti/  i/ noun [S] in the past, in Britain, the government department in charge of the navy US admire /ədmaər/  /mar/ verb [T] to respect and approve of someone or their behaviour, or to find someone or something attractive and pleasant to look at: I admired him for his determination. 앩 I really admire people who can work in such difficult conditions. 앩 We stood for a few moments, admiring the view. 앩 I was just admiring your jacket, Delia. admirable /d.m.rə.bl/ adj deserving respect or approval: I think you showed admirable tact/restraint/ self-control in your answer. 앩 The police did an admirable job in keeping the fans calm. admirably /d.m.rə.bli/ adv: I think she coped admirably (= very well) with a very difficult situation. admiration /d.mre.ʃən/ noun [U] when you admire someone or something: My admiration for that woman grows daily. 앩 She gazed in admiration at his broad, muscular shoulders. US /mar./ noun [C] someone who admirer /ədmaə.rər/  finds someone else sexually attractive, or someone who admires someone or something: She’s got plenty of admirers. 앩 She’s got a secret admirer who keeps sending her gifts. 앩 The policy has few admirers (= few people like it). US admiring /ədmaə.rŋ/  /mar.ŋ/ adj showing admiration: Annette was getting lots of admiring looks/ glances in her new red dress. 앩 She was surrounded by a group of admiring photographers. US admiringly /ədmaə.rŋ.li/  /mar.ŋ/ adv: The women sitting opposite us were gazing admiringly (= with admiration) at baby Joe. admissible /ədms..bl/ adj FORMAL considered satisfactory and acceptable in a law court: The judge ruled that new evidence was admissible. ✻ NOTE: The US opposite is inadmissible. admissibility /ədms.əbl..ti/  /ə.ti/ noun [U] admit ACCEPT /ədmt/ verb [I or T] -tt- to agree that something is true, especially unwillingly: He admitted his guilt/mistake. 앩 [+ (that)] She admitted (that) she had made a mistake. 앩 [+ v-ing ] She admitted making a mistake. 앩 At first he denied stealing the money but he later admitted (to) it. 앩 I wasn’t entirely honest with him, I admit, but I didn’t actually tell him any lies. 앩 [+ to infinitive] The new law was generally admitted to be difficult to enforce. 쐌 admit defeat to accept that you have failed and give up: After several attempts to untie the knot, I admitted defeat and cut through it with a knife. admission /ədmʃ.ən/ noun [C or U] when you agree that something is true, especially unwillingly: Her silence was taken as an admission of guilt/defeat. 앩 [+ that ] I felt he would see my giving up now as an admission that I was wrong. 앩 By/On his own admission (= as he has said) he has achieved little since he took over the company. US /mt admittedly /ədmt.  / adv used when you are agreeing that something is true, especially unwillingly: Admittedly, I could have tried harder but I still don’t think all this criticism is fair. admit ALLOW IN /ədmt/ verb [T] -tt- 1 to allow someone to enter a place: Each ticket admits one member and one

guest. 앩 Men will not be admitted to the restaurant without a tie. 앩 LITERARY A gap between the curtains admitted the faint glimmer of a street lamp. 2 to allow a person or country to join an organization: Spain was admitted to the European Community in 1986. 3 to allow someone to enter a hospital because they need medical care: She was admitted to hospital (US to the hospital) suffering from shock. admission /ədmʃ.ən/ noun [C or U] when someone is given permission to enter a place, or the money that you pay to enter a place: Admission to the exhibition will be by invitation only. 앩 How much do they charge for admission. 앩 The admission charge/fee is £2. 앩 There’s a notice outside the building which says ‘No admission before 12 noon’. admissions /ədmʃ.ənz/ plural noun the people allowed into a college, hospital, or other place, or the process of allowing people in: Half of all hospital admissions are emergencies, and these are treated straightaway. US admittance /ədmt.ənts/  /mt/ noun [U] FORMAL permission to enter a place: The sign read ‘Private – no admittance’. 앩 The enquiry centred on how the assassin had gained admittance to (= succeeded in entering) the building. 쑿 admit of sth phrasal verb FORMAL to allow something or make it possible: The present schedule does not admit of modification (= it cannot be changed). 앩 The latest events admit of several interpretations. US admixture /ədmks.tʃər/  /tʃ/ noun [C usually sing] SPECIALIZED something that is added to something else: Platinum combines with phosphorus and arsenic and is seldom found without an admixture of related metals. US /mɑ.nʃ/ verb FORMAL 1 [T] to admonish /ədmɒn.ʃ/  tell someone that they have done something wrong: His mother admonished him for eating too quickly. 2 [T + to infinitive] to advise someone to do something: Her teacher admonished her to work harder for her exams. admonition /d.mənʃ.ən/ noun [C] (ALSO admonishment) FORMAL a piece of advice that is also a warning to someone about their behaviour: The most common parental admonition must surely be "Don’t stay out late". US admonitory /ədmɒn..tər.i/  /mɑ.nə.tɔ.ri/ adj: an admonitory remark US ad nauseam /dnɔ.zi.m/  /nɑ/ adv If someone discusses something ad nauseam, they talk about it so much that it becomes very boring: He talks ad nauseam about how clever his children are. ado /ədu/ noun without further/more ado without wasting more time: And so, without further ado, let me introduce tonight’s speaker. US /doυ/ noun [U] a mixture of earth adobe /ədəυ.bi/  and straw made into bricks and dried in the sun, used to build houses in some parts of the world: an adobe house adolescent /d.əles.ənt/ noun [C] a young person who is developing into an adult adolescent /d.əles.ənt/ adj 1 being or relating to an adolescent: an adolescent boy 앩 adolescent concerns/ traumas/problems 2 describes an adult or an adult’s behaviour that is silly and childish: adolescent humour/ behaviour adolescence /d.əles.ənts/ noun [U] the period of time in a person’s life when they are developing into an adult: a troubled adolescence 앩 yet another novel about the joys and sorrows of adolescence US /dɑ.ns/ noun [C] a very beautiful Adonis /ədəυ.ns/  or sexually attractive young man: She walked in on the arm of some blond Adonis. US /dɑpt/ verb [I or T] to take adopt TAKE CHILD /ədɒpt/  another person’s child into your own family and legally raise him or her as your own child: They’ve adopted a baby girl. 앩 She had the child adopted (= She gave her baby to someone else to raise). 앩 They have no children of their own, but they’re hoping to adopt. 7Compare US /dɑp/ adj: foster TAKE CARE OF. adopted /ədɒp.td/  They’ve got two adopted children and one of their own. US /dɑp/ noun [C or U] She was adoption /ədɒp.ʃən/  homeless and had to put her child up for adoption (= asked for the child to be taken by another adult or family as their own). 앩 The last ten years have seen a




dramatic fall in the number of adoptions. US /dɑp/ adj [before n] An adoptive adoptive /ədɒp.tv/  parent is one who has adopted a child. US /dɑpt/ verb [T] to accept or start adopt START /ədɒpt/  to use something new: I think it’s time to adopt a different strategy in my dealings with him. 앩 The new tax would force companies to adopt energy-saving measures. 앩 He’s adopted a remarkably light-hearted attitude US /dɑp/ towards the situation. adoption /ədɒp.ʃən/  noun [U] Several suggestions have been offered for adoption by the panel. US /dɑpt/ verb [T] to choose or adopt CHOOSE /ədɒpt/  claim as your own: Dr Kennedy has been adopted as the party’s candidate for South Cambridge. 앩 Roz has adopted one or two funny mannerisms since she’s been away. US /dɑp/ adj: [before n] Spain is my adopted /ədɒp.td/  adopted country (= not the country where I was born, but the one where I have chosen to live). adoption US /ədɒp.ʃən/  /dɑp/ noun [U] England was Conrad’s country of adoption. US /dɔr/ verb [T not continuous] to love adore LOVE /ədɔr/  someone very much, especially in an admiring or respectful way, or to like something very much: She has one son and she adores him. 앩 I absolutely adore chocolate. 앩 [+ v-ing ] Don’t you just adore lying in a hot bath? US adorable /ədɔ.rə.bl/  /dɔr.ə/ adj describes a person or animal that makes you feel great affection because they are so attractive and often small: She has the most adorable two-year-old girl. 앩 an adorable puppy adoration /d.əre.ʃən/ noun [U] very strong love for someone: her complete adoration of her brother adoring /ədɔ.rŋ/ adj showing very strong love for someone: I refuse to play the part of the adoring wife. US /dɔr/ verb [T not continuous] FORadore WORSHIP /ədɔr/  MAL to worship: Let us adore God for all his works. ə US // noun [U] The painadoration /d.əre.ʃ n/ /ɔ/  ting depicts the three wise men kneeling in adoration of the baby Jesus. US /dɔrn/ verb [T] LITERARY to add someadorn /ədɔn/  thing decorative to a person or thing: The bride’s hair was adorned with pearls and white flowers. US adornment /ədɔn.mənt/  /dɔrn/ noun [C or U] LITERARY something decorative, or the act of decorating something or someone adrenalin, adrenaline /ədren.əl.n/ noun [U] a hormone produced by the body when you are frightened, angry or excited, which makes the heart beat faster and prepares the body to react to danger: These arguments always get my adrenalin going (= make me excited or angry). adrift /ədrft/ adj [after v] 1 If a boat is adrift, it is moving on the water but is not controlled by anyone because of a problem: He spent three days adrift on his yacht. 2 If a person is adrift, they do not have a clear purpose in life and do not know what they want to do: Da Silva plays a bright, lonely student from New York, adrift in small-town Arizona. 3 INFORMAL go/come adrift to become loose: The hem of my skirt’s come adrift again. 4 INFORMAL go adrift If plans go adrift they fail or do not produce the correct results: Something seems to have gone adrift in our calculations. adroit /ədrɔt/ adj very skilful and quick in the way you think or move: an adroit reaction/answer/movement of the hand 앩 She became adroit at dealing with difficult questions. adroitly /ədrɔ adv: She adroitly avoided the question. 앩 He adroitly slipped the money into his pocket. adroitness /ədrɔt.nəs/ noun [U] ADSL /e.di.esel/ noun [U] SPECIALIZED ABBREVIATION FOR asymmetric digital subscriber line: a system for providing a very fast Internet connection that allows you to use a telephone at the same time adulation /d.jυle.ʃən/ noun [U] very great admiration or praise for someone, especially when it is more than is deserved: Minelli is a born performer – she loves the excitement and she loves the adulation. US /d .əl.ə.tɔ.ri/ adj: FORMAL adulatory /d.jυle.tər.i/  I found myself irritated by the adulatory (= showing too much admiration) tone of her biography.

adult /d. lt/ /əd lt/ noun

[C] a person or animal that has grown to full size and strength: An adult under British law is someone over 18 years old. 앩 Adults pay an admission charge but children get in free. adult /d. lt/ /əd lt/ adj 1 grown to full size and strength: an adult male/elephant 앩 She spent most of her adult life in prison. 2 typical of or suitable for adults: Let’s try to be adult about this. 3 Adult films, magazines and books show naked people and sexual acts and are not for children. adulthood /d. lt.hυd/ /ədυlt/ noun [U] the part of someone’s life when they are an adult: People in Britain legally reach adulthood at 18. 앩 Responsibility, I suppose, is what defines adulthood. adult education noun [U] classes, which usually take place in the evening, for people who have finished their school education US /t adulterate /əd l.tə.ret/  ə.ret/ verb [T usually passive] to make food or drink weaker or to lower its quality, by adding something else: There were complaints that the beer had been adulterated with water. adulterated US /əd l.tə.re.td/  /td/ adj: adulterated drugs/food adulteration /əd l.təre.ʃən/ noun [U] US adulterer /əd l.tə.rər/  /t./ noun [C] OLD USE a married man who has sex with a woman who is not his wife, or a man who has sex with another man’s wife: Her husband was a compulsive adulterer. US adulteress /əd l.tə.rəs/  /t.əs/ noun [C] a female adulterer ə US adultery /əd l.t r.i/  /t.i/ noun [U] sex between a married man or woman and someone who is not their wife or husband: Many people in public life have US /t / committed adultery. adulterous /əd l.tər.əs/  adj: He had an adulterous relationship with his wife’s best friend. adumbrate /d.əm.bret/ verb [T] FORMAL to give only the main facts and not the details about something, especially something that will happen in the future: The project’s objectives were adumbrated in the report. adumbration /d.əmbre.ʃən/ noun [U] adv noun ABBREVIATION FOR adverb US /vnts/ verb [I or T] to advance FORWARD /ədvɑnts/  go or move something forward, or to develop or improve something: The fire advanced steadily through the forest. 앩 The troops advanced on the city (= approached it, ready to attack). 앩 We have advanced greatly in our knowledge of the universe. 앩 Her study has considerably advanced (= helped) the cause of equal rights. 앩 [+ two objects] Could you advance me £50 (= pay it to me before the regular time) until Tuesday? 앩 He’s just trying to advance (= improve) his own career. US advancing /ədvɑnt.sŋ/  /vnt/ adj: He only recently stopped working, due to his advancing years (= because he is becoming old). US /vnts/ noun 1 [C or U] the foradvance /ədvɑnts/  ward movement of something, or an improvement or development in something: Nothing could stop the advance of the flood waters. 앩 Recent advances in medical science mean that this illness can now be cured. 앩 She asked for a £300 advance on her salary (= money paid before the regular time). 2 [C usually pl] an attempt to start a romantic relationship with someone: She rejected his unwelcome advances. 쐌 in advance before a particular time, or before doing a particular thing: If you’re going to come, please let me know in advance. 쐌 in advance of sth/sb FORMAL before something or someone: She arrived in advance of everyone else. US /vnts/ adj [before n] happening, advance /ədvɑnts/  done or ready before an event: advance payment/ booking 앩 We got no advance warning/notice of the changes. US advanced /ədvɑntst/  /vntst/ adj 1 highly developed: This is the most advanced type of engine available. 2 at a higher, more difficult level: an advanced English course 3 US advanced class/course a school class which is doing work of a higher standard than is usual for students at that stage in their education US /vnt/ noun [U] All advancement /ədvɑnt.smənt/  she was interested in was the advancement (= improve-





US /d.v.ser/ noun adversary /d.və.sər.i/ 

ment, development) of her own career.


US /vnts/ verb [T] FORMAL /ədvɑnts/  to suggest an idea or theory: the theory advanced in this article



advance directive noun [C] a living will US /vn. advantage /ədvɑn.td /  td / noun 1 [C or U] a

condition giving a greater chance of success: The advantage of booking tickets in advance is that you get better seats. 앩 Despite the twin advantages of wealth and beauty, she did not have a happy life. 앩 [+ to infinitive] It would be to your advantage (= It would improve the situation for you) to agree to his demands. 앩 For a goalkeeper, it’s a great advantage to have big hands. 앩 His height and reach give him a big advantage over (= make him better than) other boxers. 앩 UK FORMAL "Do you know how old I am?" "I’m afraid you have the advantage of me there (= you know the answer but I do not)." 2 [U] the word used in tennis when a player has won the point after DEUCE: Advantage Miss Williams! 3 take advantage of sth/sth to use the good things in a situation: I thought I’d take advantage of the sports facilities while I’m here. 4 DISAPPROVING take advantage of sb/ sth to treat someone badly in order to get something good from them: I think she takes advantage of his good nature. 앩 I know she’s offered to babysit any time but I don’t want her to think we’re taking advantage of her. advantageous /d.vnte.d əs/ adj giving benefits or helping to make you more successful: advantageous interest rates 앩 The lower tax rate is particularly advantageous to poorer families. advantageously /d.vnte.d ə.sli/ adv


START /d.vent/ /vənt/ noun [S] the arrival of an event, invention or person: Life in Britain was transformed by the advent of the steam engine.


CHRISTMAS /d.vent/ /vənt/ noun [U] the period of four weeks before Christmas

Advent calendar noun

[C] a decorative piece of card, often hung on the wall, which has a small doorlike opening for each of the days of the month before Christmas. Children open one of these doors each day, finding a picture under it.

adventist /d.ven.tst/ /vən/ noun

[C] 7See Seventh-

Day Adventist.

adventitious /d.vəntʃ.əs/ /ven/ adj

FORMAL not expected or planned: an adventitious event/situation ə adventitiously /d.v ntʃ.ə.sli/ /ven/ adv

US /tʃ/ noun adventure /ədven.tʃər/ 

[C or U] an unusual, exciting and possibly dangerous activity such as a journey or experience, or the excitement produced by such an activity: She had some exciting adventures in Egypt. 앩 We got lost on the Metro – it was quite an adventure. 앩 Sam won’t come – he’s got no sense of adventure (= he does not enjoy dangerous or exciting situations). US /tʃ./ noun [C] 1 someadventurer /ədven.tʃə.rər/  one who enjoys and looks for dangerous and exciting experiences: He was something of an adventurer, living most of his life abroad. 2 DISAPPROVING a person who takes risks, acts dishonestly or uses his or her sexual attractiveness to become rich or powerful: He was portrayed in the press as a gold-digger and adventurer. US /tʃ.əs/ adj willing to adventurous /ədven.tʃər.əs/  try new or difficult things, or exciting and often dangerous: I’m trying to be more adventurous with my cooking. 앩 She led an adventurous life. 앩 He’s not very adventurous sexually. adventurously /ədven.tʃər.ə.sli/ US /tʃ/ adv 

adventure playground noun

[C] a public open space where children can play and climb on structures, usually made of wood, ropes and old tyres

US adverb /d.vb/  /vb/ noun

[C] a word which describes or gives more information about a verb, adjective, adverb or phrase: In the phrase ‘she smiled cheerfully’, the word ‘cheerfully’ is an adverb. 앩 In the phrase ‘the house was spotlessly clean’, the word ‘spotlessly’ is an US /v/ adj: an adverb. adverbial /əəl/  adverbial phrase


an enemy: He saw her as his main adversary within the company. US /vser.i/ adj FORMAL adversarial /d.vəseə.ri.əl/  involving opposition or disagreement: In the old days of two-party adversarial politics, voting was easy. US /dvs/ adj [before n] having a adverse /d.vs/ //  negative or harmful effect on something: The match has been cancelled due to adverse weather conditions. 앩 They received a lot of adverse publicity/criticism about the changes. 앩 So far the drug is thought not to have any adverse effects. US adversely /d.v.sli/ //  /dv/ adv: A lot of companies have been adversely (= in a harmful way) affected by the recession. US adversity /ədv.sə.ti/  /v.sə.ti/ noun [C or U] a difficult or unlucky situation or event: She was always cheerful in adversity. 앩 The road to happiness is paved with adversities. US /vt/ noun [C] UK advertisement, advert /d.vt/  see at advertise: an advert for the local radio station US advertise /d.və.taz/  /v/ verb [I or T] to make something known generally or in public, especially in order to sell it: We advertised our car (= published a description of it together with the price we wanted for it) in the local newspaper. 앩 He advertises his services on the company notice board. 앩 I’m going to advertise for (= put a notice in the newspaper, local shop, etc., asking for) someone to clean my house. 앩 There’s no harm in applying for other jobs, but if I were you, I wouldn’t advertise the fact (= make it generally known) at work. US advertisement /ədv.t.smənt/  /d.v.taz.mənt/ noun [C] 1 (INFORMAL ad, UK ALSO INFORMAL advert) a picture, short film, song, etc. which tries to persuade people to buy a product or service: a television/ newspaper advertisement for a new car 앩 She scanned the job/property advertisements in the paper. 2 be an advertisement for sth If you are an advertisement for something, you show its good effects: I’m afraid I’m not a very good advertisement for the diet since I’ve actually US /v.ta.z/ put on weight! advertiser /d.və.ta.zər/  noun [C] Whilst claiming to promote positive images of women, advertisers are in fact doing the very opposite. US /v/ noun [U] the busiadvertising /d.və.ta.zŋ/  ness of trying to persuade people to buy products or services: Fiona works in advertising. 앩 the advertising industry US advertorial /d.vətɔ.ri.əl/  /tɔr.i/ noun [C] an advertisement in a newspaper or magazine that is designed to look like an article by the writers of the magazine advice /ədvas/ noun [U] an opinion which someone offers you about what you should do or how you should act in a particular situation: Steven gave me some good advice. 앩 I think I’ll take your advice (= do what you suggest) and get the green dress. 앩 Can I give you a piece of advice? 앩 I need some advice on which computer to buy. 앩 [+ to infinitive] My advice is to go by train. 앩 We went to Paris on Sarah’s advice. ✻ NOTE: Do not confuse with the verb, advise. advise /ədvaz/ verb 1 [I or T] to give someone advice: [+ to infinitive] I think I’d advise him to leave the company. 앩 His doctor advised him against smoking. 앩 I’d strongly advise against making a sudden decision. 앩 [+ that ] They’re advising that children be kept out of the sun altogether. 앩 [+ v-ing ] I’d advise waiting until tomorrow. 앩 [+ question word] She advised us when to come. 앩 She advises the President (= gives information and suggests types of action) on African policy. 앩 You would be welladvised to (= It would be wise for you to) have the appropriate vaccinations before you go abroad. ✻ NOTE: Do not confuse with the noun, advice. 2 [T] FORMAL to give someone official information about something: They were advised of their rights. 앩 [+ that ] Our solicitors have advised that the costs could be enormous. advisable /ədva.zə.bl/ adj [after v] If something is advisable, it will avoid problems if you do it: [+ to infinitive] It’s advisable to book seats at least a week in advance. 앩 A certain amount of caution is advisable at this point. US /ə.t advisability /ədva.zəbl..ti/  i/ noun [U] They dis-




cussed the advisability of building so near to the airport. US /z/ noun [C] (ALSO advisor) someadviser /ədva.zər/  one whose job is to give advice about a subject: She is the party’s main economic adviser. 앩 a financial advisor US /z/ adj: She is employed by advisory /ədva.zər.i/  the president in an advisory capacity (= giving advice). ə advisory /ədva.z r.i/ noun [C usually pl] US an official announcement that contains advice, information or a warning: weather/travel advisories 앩 Television companies sometimes broadcast advisories before violent movies. COMMON LEARNER ERROR

advice Remember that this word is not countable.

She gave me lots of advice. She gave me lots of advices. If you want to use advice in a countable way, say a piece of advice.

He gave me a good piece of advice. He gave me a good advice. COMMON LEARNER ERROR

advice or advise? Be careful not to confuse the noun advice with the verb advise.

I advise you to see a lawyer. I advice you to see a lawyer.

advisedly /ədva.z adv

FORMAL If you say you are using a word advisedly, you mean you are choosing it after thinking about it very carefully: This action is barbaric – and I use the word advisedly. advisement /ədvaz.mənt/ noun [U] US the process or activity of advising someone about something: a counseling and advisement center 앩 Contact Dr. Gray about academic advisement. 앩 student/graduate/career advisement 쐌 take sth under advisement US to consider something such as advice or information carefully: Thank you for your input, Mr. Walters – I’ll take what you’ve said under advisement. advocate SUPPORT /d.və.ket/ verb [T] to publicly support or suggest an idea, development or way of doing something: [+ v-ing ] She advocates taking a more longterm view. 앩 He advocates the return of capital punishment. advocate /d.və.kət/ noun [C] He’s a strong advocate of state ownership of the railways. advocacy /d.və.kə.si/ noun [U] She is renowned for her advocacy of human rights. advocate LAWYER /d.və.kət/ noun [C] a lawyer who defends someone in a court of law adze, US USUALLY adz /dz/ noun [C] a tool like an axe with the blade at an angle of approximately 90쎷 to the handle, which is used for cutting and shaping wood aegis /i.d s/ noun FORMAL under the aegis of sb/sth with the protection or support of someone or something, especially an organization: The project was set up under the aegis of the university. US /ɑn/ noun [C] MAINLY UK FOR eon aeon /i.ɒn/  US /eret/ verb [T] 1 to add a gas to liquid, aerate /eəret/  especially a drink: aerated water 2 to allow air to act on something: Earthworms help to aerate the soil. 앩 aerated US /ere/ noun [U] soil aeration /eəre.ʃən/  US /er.i/ noun [C] (US ALSO antenna) aerial RADIO /eə.ri.əl/  a structure made of metal rods or wires which receives or sends out radio or television signals 7See picture Car on page Centre 12 US aerial AIR /eə.ri.əl/  /er.i/ adj in or from the air, especially from an aircraft: Meanwhile, the massive aerial bombardment/bombing of military targets continued unabated. 앩 aerial photography US /r.i/ noun [C] MAINLY US FOR eyrie aerie /ə.ri/  US /er.oυ/ prefix of the air or of air travel: aero- /eə.rəυ/  aerodynamics 앩 aeronautics US /er.oυbt aerobatics /eə.rəυbt.ks/  / plural noun skilful changes of position of an aircraft, such as flying upside down or in a circle: The crowd was entertained

with a display of aerobatics. aerobatic /eə.rəυbt.k/ US /er.oυbt  / adj: an aerobatic display US aerobics /eərəυ.bks/  /eroυ/ noun [U] energetic physical exercises, often performed with a group of people to music, which make the heart, lungs and muscles stronger and increase the amount of oxygen in the blood: She does aerobics. 앩 I go to aerobics (= to a class where we are taught such exercises) once a week. US 앩 an aerobics instructor/teacher aerobic /eərəυ.bk/  /eroυ/ adj: aerobic exercise US /er.ə.droυm/ noun [C] UK aerodrome /eə.rə.drəυm/  OLD-FASHIONED FOR airfield US /er.oυ/ noun [U] aerodynamics /eə.rəυ.danm.ks/  the science which studies the movement of gases and the way solid bodies, such as aircraft, move through US /er.oυ/ adj: them aerodynamic /eə.rəυ.danm.k/  aerodynamic principles 앩 an aerodynamic design/car US aerodynamically /eə.rəυ.danm..kli/  /er.oυ/ adv: aerodynamically designed/efficient US aerogramme, US ALSO aerogram /eə.rəυ.rm/  /er.ə/ noun [C] an airletter US /er.ənɑ.t aeronautics /eə.rənɔ.tks/  ks/ noun [U] the technology and science of designing, building and US operating aircraft aeronautic /eə.rənɔ.tk/  /er.ənɑ.tk/ adj: aeronautic design/engineering aeroUS /er.ənɑ.t / adj nautical /eə.rənɔ.t.kəl/  US /er/ noun [C] (US airplane) UK aeroplane /eə.rə.plen/  a vehicle designed for air travel, which has wings and one or more engines: She has her own private aeroplane. 7See picture Planes, Ships and Boats on page Centre 14 US /er.ə.sɑl/ noun [C] a metal conaerosol /eə.rəυ.sɒl/  tainer in which liquids are kept under pressure and forced out in a spray US /er.oυ/ adj [before n] produaerospace /eə.rəυ.spes/  cing or operating aircraft or spacecraft: the aerospace industry 앩 an aerospace company US /θet aesthetic, US ALSO esthetic /esθet.k/  / adj 1 relating to the enjoyment or study of beauty: The new building has little aesthetic value/appeal. 2 describes an object or a work of art that shows great beauty: furniture which is both aesthetic and functional US aesthetics, US ALSO esthetics /esθet.ks/  /θet/ noun [U] the formal study of art, especially in relation to the idea of beauty aesthetically, US ALSO esthetically US /θet /esθet..kli/  / adv: I like objects to be both functional and aesthetically pleasing. aesthete, US ALSO esthete /is.θit/ noun [C] a person who understands and enjoys beauty: The ugliness of the city would make an aesthete like you shudder. AFAIK, afaik INTERNET ABBREVIATION FOR as far as I know: used when you believe that something is true, but you are not completely certain US /fɑr/ adv from or at a great distance: afar /əfɑr/  People came from afar to see the show. 앩 HUMOROUS I’ve never actually spoken to him – I’ve just admired him from afar. affable /f.ə.bl/ adj friendly and easy to talk to: He struck me as an affable sort of a man. 앩 She was quite affable at the meeting. affably /f.ə.bli/ adv: He greeted US /ə.t i/ noun [U] FORus affably. affability /f.əbl..ti/  MAL US /fer/ noun [C] 1 a situation or MATTER /əfeər/  subject that is being dealt with or considered; a matter: She organizes her financial affairs very efficiently. 앩 He’s always meddling in (= trying to influence) other people’s affairs. 앩 What I do in my spare time is my affair (= only involves me). 2 a matter or situation which causes strong public feeling, usually of moral disapproval: The arms-dealing affair has severely damaged the reputation of the government. 앩 The President’s handling of the affair has been criticised. US affair RELATIONSHIP /əfeər/  /fer/ noun [C] a sexual relationship, especially a secret one: She’s having an affair with a married man. 앩 The book doesn’t make any mention of his love affairs. 앩 an extramarital affair US /fer/ noun [C] an event: The party affair EVENT /əfeər/  turned out to be a quiet affair.






THING /əfeə /  /fer/ noun [C] OLD-FASHIONED an object of the type stated: She wore a long black velvet affair. affairs of state plural noun important government matters affect INFLUENCE /əfekt/ verb [T] to have an influence on someone or something, or to cause them to change: Both buildings were badly affected by the fire. 앩 The divorce affected every aspect of her life. 앩 It’s a disease which affects mainly older people. 앩 I was deeply affected by the film (= It caused strong feelings in me). affecting /əfek.tŋ/ adj FORMAL causing a strong emotion, especially sadness: It was an affecting sight.






affect or effect? Do not confuse the verb affect with the noun effect, which means the result of a particular influence.

Global warming is one of the most serious effects of pollution. Do not confuse the verb affect with the verb effect, which is formal and means to make something happen.

The management wish to effect a change in company procedure. PRETEND /əfekt/ verb [T] 1 FORMAL to pretend to feel or think something: To all his problems she affected indifference. 2 FORMAL MAINLY DISAPPROVING to start to wear or do something in order to make people admire or respect you: At university he affected an upper-class accent. 앩 He’s recently affected a hat and cane. affected /əfek.td/ adj DISAPPROVING artificial and not sincere: an affected manner/style of writing 앩 I found her very affected. affectedly /əfek.t adv: She laughed affectedly. affectation /f.ekte.ʃən/ noun [C or U] DISAPPROVING behaviour or speech that is not sincere: She has so many little affectations. 앩 His manner reeks of affectation. 앩 "It doesn’t concern me," he said with an affectation of (= pretending) nonchalance. affection /əfek.ʃən/ noun [C or U] a feeling of liking for a person or place: He had a deep affection for his aunt. 앩 She felt no affection for the child. affections /əfek.ʃənz/ plural noun feelings of liking or love: The former president still holds a place in the nation’s affections. 앩 Sula seems to have transferred her affections from Jon to his brother. 쐌 win sb’s affections to succeed in persuading someone to love you affectionate /əfek.ʃən.ət/ adj showing feelings of liking or love: an affectionate kiss 앩 He’s an affectionate little boy. affectionately /əfek.ʃən.ə adv: She smiled affectionately at him. affidavit /f.əde.vt/ noun [C] a written statement which someone makes after they have sworn officially to tell the truth, and which might be used as proof in a court of law affiliate /əfl.i.et/ verb [T] to cause a group to become part of or form a close relationship with another, usually larger, group or organization: a college affiliated to the University of London 앩 The school is affiliated with a national association of driving schools. affiliate /əfl.i.ət/ noun [C] Our college is an affiliate of (= is connected with or controlled by) the university. affiliation /əf.ʃən/ noun [C or U] a connection with a political party or religion, or with a larger organization: The group has affiliations with several organizations abroad. 앩 Their lack of affiliation to any particular bank allows them to give objective financial advice. 앩 political affiliations affiliation order noun [C] UK LEGAL a legal order in which a man who is not married to the mother of his child must pay money to the mother to support his child US /ə.t affinity /əfn..ti/  i/ noun 1 [S] an attraction or sympathy for someone or something, especially because of shared characteristics: She seems to have a natural affinity for/with water. 2 [C or U] a close similarity between two things: There are several close affinities between the two paintings.


affinity card noun [C] a credit card that earns a small

amount of money for a charity each time something is bought with it US affirm /əfm/  /fm/ verb [T] FORMAL 1 to state something as true: [+ (that)] The suspect affirmed (that) he had been at home all evening. 앩 She affirmed her intention to apply for the post. 2 to publicly state your support for an opinion or idea: The government has affirmed its commitment to equal rights. affirmation /f.əme. US // noun [C or U] We welcome the government’s ʃən/  affirmation of its intention to act. US /f.mə.t affirmative /əf.mə.tv/  v/ adj relating to a statement that shows agreement or says ‘yes’: an affirmative answer/response ✻ NOTE: The opposite is negative. US /f.mə.t affirmative /əf.mə.tv/  v/ noun [C or U] a word or statement that shows agreement or says ‘yes’: She asked the question expecting an affirmative. 앩 He replied in the affirmative (= He said yes). 앩 MAINLY US "Were you in New York on March 3rd?" "Affirmative (= US /f.mə.tv/ Yes)." affirmatively /əf.mə.t  adv: She answered affirmatively. affirmative action noun [U] If a government or an organization takes affirmative action, it gives preference to women, black people, or other groups which are often treated unfairly, when it is choosing people for a job. affix FIX /əfks/ verb [T] FORMAL to fix one thing to another: She affixed a stamp to the envelope. affix WORD PART /f.ks/ noun [C] a letter or group of letters which are added to the beginning or end of a word to make a new word: The affixes un- and -less are often used to make negative words, such as ‘unhappy’ and ‘careless’. afflict /əflkt/ verb [T] If a problem or illness afflicts a person or thing, they suffer from it: It is an illness which afflicts women more than men. 앩 a country afflicted by civil war affliction /əflk.ʃən/ noun [C or U] FORMAL something that makes you suffer: Malnutrition is one of the common afflictions of the poor. affluent /ənt/ adj having a lot of money or owning a lot of things; rich: affluent nations/neighbourhoods affluence /ənts/ noun [U] What we are seeing increasingly is a society of private affluence and public squalor. US /fɔrd/ verb can afford to be afford BE ABLE /əfɔd/  able to buy or do something because you have enough money or time: I don’t know how he can afford a new car on his salary. 앩 Few people are able to afford cars like that. 앩 She couldn’t afford the time off work to see him. 앩 [+ to infinitive] I can’t afford to buy a house. 쐌 cannot afford (FORMAL can ill afford) If you cannot afford to do something, you must not do it because it would cause serious problems for you: We can’t afford to make any mistakes at this stage in the project. 앩 He can ill afford to fail any of his exams. US affordable /əfɔ.də.bl/  /fɔr/ adj not expensive: nice clothes at affordable prices COMMON LEARNER ERROR

afford to do something When afford is followed by a verb, it is always in the to + infinitive form.

We can’t afford to go on holiday this year. We can’t afford going on holiday this year. US /fɔrd/ verb [T] FORMAL to allow GIVE /əfɔd/  someone to have something pleasant or necessary: The hut afforded little protection from the elements. 앩 [+ two objects] Her seat afforded her an uninterrupted view of the stage. US /fɔr.əst/ verb [T] to plant trees on afforest /əfɒr.st/  an area of land in order to make a forest afforestaə US /əfɔr.ə/ noun [U] tion /fɒr.ste.ʃ n/  affray /əfre/ noun [C] LEGAL a fight in a public place: Wallace was charged with causing an affray at a Southampton nightclub.





affront /əfr nt/ noun [C] a remark or action intended to insult or offend someone: He regarded the comments as an affront to his dignity. affront /əfr nt/ verb [T usually passive] FORMAL I was most affronted by his comments. 앩 an affronted look/glance afghan hound /f.nhaυnd/ noun [C] a tall thin dog with long smooth hair and a pointed nose US aficionado /əfʃ.i.ənɑ.dəυ/  /doυ/ noun [C] plural aficionados FORMAL someone who is very interested in and enthusiastic about a particular subject: a club for model railway aficionados 앩 an aficionado of French films afield /əfild/ adv far/further afield a long distance away: We export our products to countries as far afield as Japan and Canada. 앩 Our students come from Europe, Asia and even further afield. AFK, afk INTERNET ABBREVIATION FOR away from keyboard: used when you stop taking part in a discussion in a CHAT ROOM for a short time aflame /əflem/ adj LITERARY 1 [after v] burning: The whole village was aflame. 2 [after v] red or golden, as if burning: It was autumn and the trees were aflame with colour. 앩 Her cheeks were aflame with embarrassment/ anger. 3 very excited: Aflame with desire, he took her in his arms. US /floυt/ adj [after v] 1 floating on water: afloat /əfləυt/  She spent seven days afloat on a raft. 앩 He managed to keep/stay afloat by holding on to the side of the boat. 2 having enough money to pay what you owe: Many small businesses are struggling to stay/keep afloat. US aflutter /əfl t.ər/  /fl t./ adj [after v] HUMOROUS excited and nervous: I’m all aflutter about meeting him after so long. 앩 Paul had walked into the room and set my heart aflutter. afoot /əfυt/ adj [after v] happening or being planned or prepared: There are plans afoot to launch a new radio station. US afore /əfɔr/  /fɔr/ adv, prep, conjunction OLD USE before EARLIER US /fɔr/ adj [before aforementioned /əfɔ.men.tʃənd/  n] (ALSO aforesaid) FORMAL mentioned earlier: The aforementioned Mr Parkes then entered the cinema. US the aforementioned /ði.əfɔ.men.tʃənd/  /fɔr/ noun (ALSO the aforesaid) the person or people mentioned earlier: The aforementioned was/were seen waiting outside the building. afoul /əfaυl/ adv run/fall afoul of sth/sb to experience problems, punishment or harm because you disobey a rule or disagree with a powerful organization, group or person: He was fifteen when he first ran afoul of the law. 앩 At one point Seeger fell afoul of the US government for his antiwar actions. afraid FEAR /əfred/ adj [after v] feeling fear, or feeling anxiety about the possible results of a particular situation: He was/felt suddenly afraid. 앩 I’ve always been afraid of flying/heights/spiders. 앩 She was afraid for her children (= feared that they might be hurt). 앩 [+ to infinitive] Don’t be afraid to say what you think. 앩 [+ (that)] She was afraid (that) he might be upset if she told him. afraid SORRY /əfred/ adj I’m afraid... used to politely introduce bad news or disagreement: This is your room – it’s rather small, I’m afraid. 앩 I don’t agree at all, I’m afraid. 앩 I’m afraid you’ve completely misunderstood the question. 앩 [+ (that)] I’m afraid (that) we can’t come this evening after all. 앩 "Was she impressed with our work?" "I’m afraid not (= No)." 앩 "Does this mean I’ve got to leave?" "I’m afraid so (= Yes)." A-frame /e.frem/ noun [C] US a simple house shaped like an A, with two of its four walls sloping inward and meeting at the top to act as a roof A-frame /e.frem/ adj: [before n] an A-frame chalet afresh /əfreʃ/ adv If you do something afresh, you deal with it again in a new way: She tore up the letter and started afresh. 앩 We agreed to look afresh at her original proposal. Africa /f.r.kə/ noun [U] the continent that is to the south of the Mediterranean Sea, to the east of the Atlantic Ocean and to the west of the Indian Ocean African /f.r.kən/ adj relating or belonging to Africa: African history/music

African /f.r.kən/ noun [C] someone from Africa

African violet noun

[C] a small plant with purple, pink or white flowers which is grown in a container in a house US /ɑ.fr/ noun [U] a language Afrikaans /f.rkɑns/  which is related to Dutch and is spoken in South Africa US Afrikaner /f.rkɑ.nər/  /ɑ.frkɑ.n/ noun [C] a South African person whose family were originally Dutch and whose first language is Afrikaans Afro HAIR /f.rəυ/ /roυ/ noun [C] plural Afros a way of arranging the hair so that it is very thick, curly and has a rounded shape, especially like that of some black people US /f.roυ/ prefix of or conAfro- CONTINENT /f.rəυ/  nected with Africa: Afro-Caribbean culture 앩 AfroAmerican literature US /ft/ adj, adv SPECIALIZED in or towards the aft /ɑft/  back part of a boat US /f.t/ prep 1 following in time, place after /ɑf.tər/  or order: Shall we go for a walk after breakfast? 앩 Some people believe in life after death. 앩 Her name came after mine on the list. 앩 There’s a good film on the day after tomorrow. 앩 She waited until well after midnight. 앩 US It’s a quarter after four. 앩 She just keeps on working, day after day, week after week (= continuously). 앩 We’ve had meeting after meeting (= many meetings) to discuss this point. 앩 Jessie seemed very small after (= in comparison with) Michael’s children. 앩 After (= Despite) everything I’ve done for you, is this the way you treat me? 앩 After (= Because of) what she did to me, I’ll never trust her again. 앩 The children have to learn to tidy up after themselves (= after they have made things untidy). 앩 She slammed the door after (= behind) her. 앩 We ran after (= followed) him, but he escaped. 앩 Could you lock up after you (= when you leave), please? 2 typical of or similar to the style of: a painting after Titian 앩 a concerto after Mozart 쐌 be after sb/sth INFORMAL to be looking for someone or something or trying to find or get them: The police are after him. 앩 I’m after a tie to go with this shirt. 앩 I’m sure she’s after my husband. 앩 He’s after (= wants for himself) Jane’s job. 쐌 after all 1 despite earlier problems or doubts: The rain has stopped, so the game will go ahead after all. 2 used to add information that shows that what you have just said is true: I do like her – after all, she is my sister. 쐌 after you 1 used to politely say that someone can go in front of you or serve themselves with food before you: "Can I pour you some coffee?" "Oh no, after you." 2 UK INFORMAL used to ask another person to give you something which they are using when they have finished using it: After you with the newspaper, Jack. US /f.t/ conjunction at a time which is after /ɑf.tər/  later than another event: Three months after they moved out, the house was still empty. 앩 Soon/shortly after we joined the motorway, the car started to make a strange noise. 앩 I went to the post office straight/immediately after I left you. US after /ɑf.tər/  /f.t/ adv later than someone or something else: Hilary got here at midday and Nicholas arrived soon after. 앩 I can’t go next week – how about the week after (= the following week)? 앩 NOT STANDARD She got back at 4.30 and went to see Emilie after (= after she US /f.t/ prefix an aftergot back). after- /ɑf.tə/  dinner speech 앩 an after-hours club 앩 after-sales service US afterbirth /ɑf.tə.bθ/  /f.t.bθ/ noun [U] the material, including the PLACENTA, which is pushed out of a woman’s or female animal’s body soon after she has given birth US /f.t.ker/ noun [U] the care of aftercare /ɑf.tə.keər/  people after they have left a hospital or prison after effects plural noun unpleasant effects that follow an event or accident, sometimes continuing for a long time or happening some time after it US /f.t.loυ/ noun [C usually sing afterglow /ɑf.tə.ləυ/  or U] a pleasant feeling produced after an experience, event, feeling, etc: The team were basking in the afterglow of winning the cup. US afterlife /ɑf.tə.laf/  /f.t/ noun [S] the life, for example in heaven, which some people believe begins


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