| Roundtable Human Rights in Tourism (2023)

| Roundtable Human Rights in Tourism (1)

Cruise companies and cruise ships negatively impact communities through air and water pollution, economic leakage and tax avoidance, as well as overtourism. Such negative impacts can arise where cruise companies are based, where they pass through, and where they dock.


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Even though some cruise companies have responded to pollution issues when building new ships in recent years, most cruise liners still score badly when it comes to emissions, treatment of sewage and noise pollution. Most cruise ships sail with cheap heavy oil, which is particularly toxic and harmful to the environment. Furthermore, many cruise ships use outdated technology to treat sewage before discharging it into the sea, resulting in significant amounts of faecal bacteria, heavy metals, and nutrients entering the open water, with negative impacts on ecosystems. There have also been reports of cruise ships throwing waste overboard. Cruise ships mostly keep their engines running, including when docked. Related air pollution can have negative health impacts on residents living near the port.

Economic leakage

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Cruise ships commonly sail under the flags of a small group of countries that are considered tax havens by the OECD and have weak labour laws, enabling cruise owners to avoid taxes, provide poor working conditions and wages and follow potentially dangerous security practices. While cruise liners profit from systems and public services in the places they operate most, they generally do not pay taxes to these places. As passengers eat most of their meals on board, shop at cruise company-owned duty-free shops and participate in excursions organised by the cruise company, very little money they spend flows into the economies of the local communities they visit.


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Opinions about the responsibility of cruises for overtourism are divided. Regardless, it is clear that cruise passengers temporarily overflow certain destinations when docking, which is particularly harmful for small destinations. In some places, protests against overtourism have targeted the cruise industry.

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Can tourism be considered a human right? ›

4: The right to access to holidays and to freedom of travel and tourism, a natural consequence of the right to work, is recognized as an aspect of the fulfilment of the human being by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as well as by the legislation of many States.

What is tourism rights? ›

The right to tourism is reserved to the leisure class, holding the employment means to benefit from vacation time, the social means to leave one's family and community, and the financial means to transportation, lodging and other expenses associated with leisure tourism.

What is tourism framework? ›

A framework for the general study of tourism is discussed. Three approaches to the topic: economic, technical, and holistic are identified and analysed; it is argued that its multi facets require a holistic definition. A systems methodology is used to develop a new definition of tourism.

How tourism contributes to mutual understanding and respect between peoples and societies? ›

Tourism involves cross-cultural interaction among people of different nations and hence helps in building better understanding and peaceful relations. Tourism strengthens dialogues between regions and neighboring countries through promoting cultural understanding, mutual respect and peace.

Why are human rights important in tourism? ›

In the tourism sector a “doing wrong” or “not doing” could cause violations of human rights, if, for example, the sector is not ready to welcome tourist with all four types of disability, does not well protect children from labour or sexual exploitation, discriminate the access to tourism services and facilities due ...

Is tourism a violation of human rights? ›

Tourism violates human rights, not only directly, but also indirectly. Climate change, to which aviation contributes significantly, endangers the food security, health and survival of millions of people.

What are the ethical issues in tourism industry? ›

Below, I have briefly outlined some of the most common ethical issues in tourism.
  • Distribution of income. Photo by Volker Meyer on Pexels.com. ...
  • Access to services and facilities. ...
  • Exploitation of children. ...
  • Exploitation of women. ...
  • Sex tourism. ...
  • Animal welfare. ...
  • Environmental destruction. ...
  • Cultural impacts of tourism.
May 24, 2022

What are the 5 main aspects of responsible tourism? ›

These principles dictate that you should disturb your surroundings as little as possible when you're visiting a new place:
  • Keep noise to a minimum.
  • Don't travel in large groups.
  • Don't leave anything behind.
  • Preserve the nature around you.
  • Leave things as you found them.
Sep 13, 2016

What are 5 A's of tourism? ›

Accommodation, Accessibility, Activities, Amenities, and Attractions.

What are the 3 A's of tourism? ›

Attraction, Accessibility and Amenities are collectively called the 3A concept. These are the 3 basic components of tourism. These help us in figuring out the potential of tourism in a place.

What are the 9 pillars of tourism? ›

These are the 9 pillars of tourism:
  • Accommodation.
  • Adventure and recreation.
  • Attractions.
  • Catering facilities.
  • Entertainment.
  • Events.
  • Transportation.
  • Travel agencies & Tourism Services.
Jul 25, 2022

What are the six 6 elements of tourism? ›

Furthermore, World Tourism Organization (2007) explains that the basic elements of a tourist destination composed of 6 elements of attraction, image, accessibility, facilities, human resources, and price.

How does tourism promote cultural awareness? ›

Through cultural tourism tourists can better understand why people of other cultures take time when they are doing things. Misconceptions about a culture's time management can therefore be reduced when tourists come into contact with and communicate with people of other cultures.

How is Ethics in tourism be applied to sustainable tourism? ›

The Global Code of Ethics for Tourism sets a frame of reference for the responsible and sustainable development of world tourism. It draws inspiration from many similar declarations and industry codes that have come before and it adds new thinking that reflects our changing society at the beginning of the 21st century.

How can tourism bring people together? ›

Tourism brings together people from different backgrounds, cultures, and traditions. Tourists share their experiences and memories about places they visited and people they met, which helps promote peace and tolerance.

What are the 5 most important human rights? ›

These include the right to life, the right to a fair trial, freedom from torture and other cruel and inhuman treatment, freedom of speech, freedom of religion, and the rights to health, education and an adequate standard of living.

What are the 5 basic human rights? ›

Human rights include the right to life and liberty, freedom from slavery and torture, freedom of opinion and expression, the right to work and education, and many more. Everyone is entitled to these rights, without discrimination.

What are some examples of human resource issues in tourism? ›

Historically, HR in hospitality has battled problems like low wages, high turnover, and the recruitment of skilled employees.
Staff Attrition (Unfilled Vacancies)
  • Unclear job expectations.
  • Inefficient communication.
  • Minimal growth opportunities.
  • Disconnect with managers.
Jan 19, 2021

What are 3 main negative impacts of tourism? ›

Tourism puts enormous stress on local land use, and can lead to soil erosion, increased pollution, natural habitat loss, and more pressure on endangered species.

Is tourism a right or a privilege? ›

It defines the right to tourism as 'a right equally open to all the world's inhabitants' and it supports the 'liberty of tourist movements'.

What is the golden rule of tourism? ›

Be safe: Do not take risks with your personal safety by climbing or walking in dangerous areas. Follow the advice of your guide and stay in designated areas. Respect other park users: Other people have a right to use BMNP, whether scientists, local inhabitants or other visitors.

What is the main problem facing tourism? ›

Challenges facing Tourism include taxations, travel promotions, safety, infrastructure, and cross border set of laws among others. The majority of tourism destinations are not ready for visitors. Tourists or travelers might at times implicate travel marketing as overstated.

What is the biggest problem in tourism? ›

Top challenges confronting tourism are taxation, travel marketing, infrastructure issues, and security and cross border regulations. Too many tourism destinations are not prepared for visitors.

What is unethical tourism? ›

Abuse of tourism for sexual purposes. Elitist tourism. Unethical use of social welfare benefits. Deterioration of cultural artefacts by tourism. Social environmental degradation from recreation and tourism.

What are the six A's of tourism destination? ›

6As of tourism destinations such as Attractions, Accessibility, Amenities, Available Packages, Activities and Ancillary Services that will facilitate a dynamic cocreation process to increase destination competitiveness. These 6 A's along with the smart application will add value to the touristic experience.

What are the four pillars of sustainable tourism? ›

The four pillars include: Environmental Responsibility, Social Equity, Economic Health, and Cultural Vitality.

What are the 4 A's of tourism and why is it important? ›

Most destinations comprise a core of following attributes, which can be character- ized as the four A's framework: attractions, access, amenities, and ancillary services. Attractions that motivate tourist to visit the destination consist of the natural as well as artificial features.

What are the 7 Ps of tourism marketing? ›

(Product, price, place, promotion, people, process, physical evidence) have been considered to be the independent variables.

What are the 8 components of tourism industry? ›

For many years, however, the tourism industry was classified into eight sectors: accommodations, adventure and recreation, attractions, events and conferences, food and beverage, tourism services, transportation, and travel trade (Yukon Department of Tourism and Culture, 2013).

What are the 4 types of tourism? ›

  • Travel and Tourism. ...
  • Domestic Tourism – Taking Holidays and Trips in your own country. ...
  • Inbound Tourism – Visitors from overseas coming into the country. ...
  • Outbound Tourism –Travelling to a different country for a visit or a. ...
  • Different Types of Travel. ...
  • Leisure Travel - includes travel for holidays, cultural events, recreation.

What are the 7 components of tourism? ›

These are: tourist boards, travel services, accommodation services, conferences and events, attractions and tourism services. Below, I will explain what each of the components offer to the tourism industry and provide some relevant examples.

Who is the father of tourism? ›

Thomas Cook, (born November 22, 1808, Melbourne, Derbyshire, England—died July 18, 1892, Leicester, Leicestershire), English innovator of the conducted tour and founder of Thomas Cook and Son, a worldwide travel agency. Cook can be said to have invented modern tourism.

What are the 3 main areas of sustainable tourism impact? ›

The three pillars of sustainable tourism are environmental sustainability, social sustainability and economic sustainability (sometimes referred to as planet, people and profits).

What are three sustainable tourism factors? ›

According to the International Labor Organization (ILO, 2017) “Sustainable tourism consists of three main pillars: social justice, economic development, and environmental integrity.

What are the six stages of tourism life cycle? ›

In Butler's TALC (1980), traditional tourist areas traverse during its life span six stages: exploration, involvement, development, consolidation and stagnation, arriving to a final post-stagnation stage.

What are the four elements of cultural tourism? ›

The book examines the concept of cultural tourism and its definition and takes cultural tourism to involve four elements: tourism, use of cultural heritage assets, consumption of experiences and products and the tourist.

What are the 3 benefits of cultural tourism? ›

Tourism creates jobs, new business opportunities, and strengthens local economies. It protects natural and cultural resources, which improve the quality of life for residents and travelers who participate in the services and attractions.

Why is it important for tourist to respect other cultures? ›

No matter your personal opinions, as a traveller you willingly step into the cultures and traditions of each new place you visit. You are a guest in this person's community, the rules and traditions often hold great significance in their lives — you must willingly travel from a place of respect.

What is the ethical aspect of tourism and hospitality? ›

The Code of Ethics ensures the respect and understanding among all people and societies, the sustainable development of tourism, protection of nature and environment, the freedom of movement, the rights of tourists and residents, and the rights and obligations of tourism-specific professionals and authorities.

What is the impact of Ethics in the tourism and hospitality industry? ›

A hospitality company with poor ethics will not be able to keep customers, and staff satisfaction will plummet. There will be ethical dilemmas though, which are when a person must choose between doing what is wrong or doing what is ethical because it is the right thing to do.

How will you establish a strong ethical culture in the tourism and hospitality industry? ›

Ethical Principles for Hospitality Managers. Honesty: Hospitality managers are honest and truthful. They do not mislead or deceive others by misrepresentations. Integrity: Hospitality managers demonstrate the courage of their convictions by doing what they know is right even when there is pressure to do otherwise.

What are 4 positive impacts of tourism? ›

As well as generating employment and income, another positive impact of tourism is improvements in infrastructure. These include road and rail improvements, airport development and improvements in utilities, such as water supply and telecommunications.

How does tourism connect people and places? ›

Tourism plays a large role in connecting humans right across the globe. Tourism encourages us to travel to different places, engage with different cultures, and make connections to places we normally would not otherwise visit.

What is tourism Ethics? ›

The Global Code of Ethics for Tourism (GCET) is a comprehensive set of principles whose purpose is to guide stakeholders in tourism development: central and local governments, local communities, the tourism industry and its professionals, as well as visitors, both international and domestic.

What are the 7 main human rights? ›

The rights covered by the Covenants
  • Freedom from discrimination.
  • Right to equality between men and women.
  • Right to life.
  • Freedom from torture.
  • Freedom from slavery.
  • Right to liberty and security of person.
  • Right to be treated with humanity in detention.
  • Freedom of movement.

What are the 5 main human rights? ›

What rights are protected under the Human Rights Act?
  • Your right to life. ...
  • Your right to respect for private and family life. ...
  • Your right to personal liberty. ...
  • Your right not to be tortured or treated in an inhuman way. ...
  • Your right to a fair trial. ...
  • Your right to freedom of religion and belief.

What are the 7 core human rights? ›

The Meaning of Seven Core Freedom of UDHR

Right to life, liberty and security of person. Right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. Right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each State. Right to freedom of opinion and expression.

What are the 10 basic human rights in US? ›

10 Examples of Human Rights
  • #1. The right to life. ...
  • #2. The right to freedom from torture and inhumane treatment. ...
  • #3. The right to equal treatment before the law. ...
  • #4. The right to privacy. ...
  • #5. The right to asylum. ...
  • #6. The right to marry and have family. ...
  • #7. The right to freedom of thought, religion, opinion, and expression. ...
  • #8.

What are the 4 main categories of human rights? ›

The second paragraph emphasizes the fact that the disrespect, the abuse of human right result in chaotic act which have broken the four freedom: Freedom of speech, Belief, want and Freedom from fear. This four freedoms are described as the peak of their aspiration of man kind.

What are 5 human rights violations? ›

Abductions, arbitrary arrests, detentions without trial, political executions, assassinations, and torture often follow.

What are the 3 most important human rights? ›

Human rights are based on values that keep society fair, just and equal. They include the right to life, the right to health and the right to freedom from torture.

What are the 3 basic human rights? ›

Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.

What are the 3 categories of human rights? ›

  • Right to Security from Harm. While there are many accepted human rights, they tend to fall into a few specific categories. ...
  • Right to Legal Equality. Another common category of human rights is the expectation to receive equal protection under the law. ...
  • Right to Political Participation.
Nov 14, 2021

What are the 12 fundamental human right? ›

The fundamental rights under the Constitution include; right to life; dignity of human person; liberty, fair hearing; private and family life; freedom of thought, conscience and religion; freedom of expression and press; peaceful assembly and association; movement; freedom from discrimination; right to acquire and own ...

What are three main causes of human rights violations? ›

The following four sections will cover, broadly speaking, the most studied causes of human rights violations identified by researchers and practitioners: (1) Government Behavior and Structure; (2) Armed Conflict; (3) Economic Factors; and (4) Psychological Factors.


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